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KCI등재 학술저널

机器人的法律主体地位辨析

兼谈对机器人进行法律规制的基本要求

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人是现代民法制度设计的基础和主要保护对象,强调对人的尊重和保护是现代法治文明的主要标志。人工智能机器人的出现不但对现有的社会主体构造和社会关系造成很大冲击,而且对传统的以自然人为核心的民事主体制度也提出了严重挑战。但无论从哲学角度还是从法学角度,都不应当赋予机器人以与人相同的法律主体地位。其原因不仅在于机器人作为人类活动的结果其本身并不具有与周围环境交互影响的内在感知能力,因此并无与自然人类似的基于内心观察(认识)、判断、选择等一系列复杂行为所构成的意思能力,而且更在于机器人就其生成机理来说不可能产生生命和生命权,也没有作为责任承担主体所必备的道德、良心、良知、伦理、宗教、规矩和习惯。因此如果仓促确认机器人的独立民事主体资格,有可能给人类带来灾难性的后果。为了保证机器人的健康发展,一方面应当充分肯定科学技术对社会发展的巨 大促进作用,并利用良好的法律制度为机器人的进一步提档升级留下足够的发展空间; 另一方面则应确立人类优先和社会公共利益优先之理念,突出利益平衡要求,在充分考虑中国国情的基础上,建构符合中国国情需要的人工智能法律制度体系。

Human beings are the basis and major targets of protection in the designing of contemporary civil law system. The emphasis on paying respect to and providing protection to human beings is a major sign of the rule of law. However, the appearance of artificial intelligence robots has a profound impact on the current structuring of social subjects and social relations. It is also a big challenge to civil subject system which traditionally focuses on natural persons. From the perspectives of philosophy and jurisprudence, this paper suggests that robots should not be granted the status of legal subjects like that of human beings. When robots behave like human beings, their behaviors are not resulted from any internal perceptive capacity, which prohibit them from interacting with surroundings. Consequently, unlike natural persons robots do not have any mental capacity, which prohibits them from making observation, making judgements, making choices, and producing other complex behaviors. Furthermore, it is impossible for robots to have any life or right to life due to mechanisms producing those robots. Roberts are unable to assume any responsibility for their lack of any consciousness of morals, conscience, ethics, religions, rules and customs. As a result, if robots are granted the status of civil subjects in haste, there will be disastrous consequences to human beings. In order to promote the development of robots, legal regulations on robots should acknowledge the positive influence of science and technology on social development, while leave space for the further development and upgrading of robots. At the same time, legal regulations on artificial intelligence need to be based on the concept of giving priority to human beings and public social interests, focus on the balancing of interests, as well as be suitable to China’s conditions.

摘要

一、机器人对传统民事主体的挑战

二、哲学意义上的人的概念及其构成要素

三、民法上的人的基本内涵及其成立条件

四、为什么不应当赋予机器人以民事主体资格

五、法律如何回应机器人对我们提出的挑战

结语

參考文獻

ABSTRACT

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