This paper analyzes the aspects and characteristics of surname bestowment, on the basis of the advancement of aristocratic officials of the Overseas Origins above 5th rank in the Heian Period. As one can see from the cases of new literary families including 御船, 惟良, 都, 山田, and 淨野, the characteristics of the surname bestowment in the Early Heian Period include the fact that even those families that produced aristocratic officials above 5th rank in the Nara Period were given 朝臣 and 宿禰after swinging to the literary faction. I think that this is due to the fact that with their particularities as the Overseas Origins families gradually thinned, they couldn’t help shifting their familial characteristics in accordance to the new wave in the Heian Period that required literary qualities. The surname bestowment in the Early Heian Period, different from that in the Nara Period, was characteristic in that it guaranteed a family at the step of the formation of its particularities in the early stage the formation of 家格. In addition, though they had the high-ranked surname, 朝臣, they were under-middle level officials since their positions including 算道, 官史, 外記, and 陰陽 were for practical functions. However, as each family gave more weight on the succession of hereditary positions on its own than on the advancement in the hierarchy, the transition toward the formation of 家格as a hereditary noble family was important in its characteristics. That is to say, the surname bestowment upon families of the Overseas Origins in the Early Heian Period, above all, had the property of the certification of family that allowed them to extend their familial foundations in such a competitive bureaucratic society since the Middle Heian Period. Also, these certified families are significant in that rather than being newly appearing families in the Heian Period, they maintained, through surname bestowment, the successiveness from the old families that had produced aristocratic officials since the Nara Period.
Ⅱ. 나라시대의 도래계 관인의 賜姓개요
Ⅲ. 헤이안 前期의 도래계 관인의 敍位와 賜姓