While mainly interpreted as theory of justification(大義名分論), the late Mito School contained strong elements for changes. In this article, I focused on the theory of versatility found in many writing of the late Mito scholars. Still, they believed that there is one thing that cannot be changed, that is, the Kokutai(國體). The theory of versatility by the late Mito school existed for the protection of the Kokutai. It was for the protection of the Kokutai that revolutionary ideas were allowed. In other words, I believe that it is only through the theory of versatility that the theories of justification and the protection of Kokutai in the late Mito school come to terms with its revolutionary aspects. On the other hands, I object to the view that the late Mito school viewed the relationship between the sovereign and the subject as that of absolute obsedience. On the contrary, those scholars objected to the authorities of their seniors and tried to maintain the autonomy of the subjects. What mattered for them was not the blind devotion to the sovereign but the achievement of justice through the sovereign, Consequently, when they viewed that their sovereign acted unjustly, they would never follow his orders. They rejected his orders and carried out their political positions to the end.
Ⅱ. 後期水戶學의 變通論
Ⅲ. 後期水戶學의 君臣觀