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KCI등재 학술저널

무단통치 초기(1910.10-1914.4)의 조선총독부

- 인사·관제개혁·예산을 중심으로-

  • 214

The colonial Joseon government general in this period was regarded as ‘the politically independent area by Japanese army.’ Its political subject was Japanese army, especially it was Choshu Clique ( 長州閥 ). Amongst the military cliques, it was the military forces that connected directly to Terauchi Masatake, the first Joseon Governor-General. However, he and Yamagata Isaburo, Japanese Administrative Superintendent, who were considered to be Yamagata Clique ( 山県閥 ) confronted each other centering around their own organizations, to wit, military police and the Ministry of Home respectively. Affiliating with Seiyukai( 政友会 ) led by Hara Takesi, and making the most of energy released during the Taisho Political Crisis( 大正政変 ) that opposed the dominance of military clique( 軍閥 ) and of domain clique( 藩閥 ), Prime Minister Yamamoto had pushed through such reforms as streamlining of administrative and financial system; revision of minister of active military attaché system; revision of civil service appointment ordinance; revision of an order of precedence(demotion of Joseon Governor-General’s order of precedence); replacement of the top-level managers of the Oriental Development Company; cuts in additional salary of the officials of Japanese colony; and reform of the system for colonial control and administration. Among these measures, at first the reform of system for colonial control and administration was proceeded under the lead of PM Yamamoto, however, after 10 months, the Ministry of Home headed by Hara Takesi had materialized this reform plan. The main items included in this reform plan were: revoke of minister of active military attaché system; depriving the Governor-General of his command authority over armed forces; abolition of military police; deleting of the clause of Joseon Governor-General’s privilege to bear direct responsibility for the Emperor, deprivation of the right to make recommendation direct to the emperor; appointment of the Secretary of State for Home Affairs to have supervisory authority over the Joseon Governor-General. By means of these reformative measures, Yamamoto had attempted to modify the power of Joseon Governor-General fundamentally. Even though Yamamoto Cabinet was collapsed, and the reform of the colonial control and administrative system was turned out to be a failure due to Siemens Scandal, Hara Takesi who had deeply involved in revision of the system for colonial control and administration, and the officials of Ministry of Home had come to lead the reforms of colony governance after the March First Independence Movement of 1919. Meanwhile, Yamamoto Cabinet followed by Saionji Cabinet had adopted a policy to cut the government subsidies for the colonial Joseon government general having promised streamlining of administrative and financial system as well as financial retrenchment. The colonial Joseon government general initially had planned for collection of additional taxes after completion of land survey project, however, according to the policy of the cabinet, the government general in Joseon announced a five-year independent budget plan in 1914. Included in the plan were collection of additional land tax(a 40% increase); development of new sources of tax revenue (urban land tax, tobacco excise tax, consumption tax); and opium monopoly. As for collection of additional land tax, Japanese people residing in Joseon started a campaign against tax increase having organized the Fellowship of Survey of Increased Taxation in Joseon and the Fellowship of Landowners in Jeonbuk, and, as to opium monopoly, Joseon aristocracy and men of high repute from illustrious families had taken a pivotal role in opposing such measure. Likewise, Yamamoto Cabinet had forced the colonial Joseon government general to implement the cabinet’s policy and guidelines such as, streamlining of administrative and financial system; revision of an order of precedenc

1. 들어가며

2. 총독부인사

3. 야마모토 내각의 식민지 관제개혁

4. 재정독립 5개년 계획

5. 맺으며

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