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학술저널

利己心에 관한 東西思想의 比較硏究

A comparative study on thoughts on self-interest seeking between west and east

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This paper is attempted to address to interpret the similarities and differences between Western and Eastern thoughts with regard to self-interest seeking behavior of individual. Some significant findings in this study are cited as follows: First of all, it should be mentioned that some similarities between West and East on the subjet could be hardly found. Rather, the thought on self-interest seeking behavior between West and Far East appeared to be differ each other frequently in many cases. First, above all, self interest is conceived as a positive nature of human being in West, as A. Smith appreciated it as a precious virtue to be thought as neutral or more or less negative for the holistic harmony of society and whole world. Second, in West. some benefit one seeks used to be treated as objective function, which is normally presented as utility in conventional economics. In contrast, acording to Confucianism, utility or some benefit used to be thought of a result of altruistic behavior that naturally benefits other persons. This kind of altruistic virtue is actually generated from the moral philosophy which tends to abndone self-interest seeking at all, instead to pursue a care of other persons for immanence and harmony of society. Third, as to rule of market order, in which one would usually seeks self interest, as Heyek and Freadman used to postulate, morality in society is consistent with it. But, Confucius teached to condemn it as the bottom of moral society. It seems that this view is shared by a German economic philosopher, P. Koslowsky who states that rule of market order is refered to the lowest subsystem of whole system of rules of society. Fourth, it is worthwhile to notice that in West self-interest is practiced mostly on the basis of individual reason, which might refer to A. Smith’s “prudence”. Instead of reason in Far East Confucius taught to emphasize the sympaty based on “Jen”(仁) which is likelyled to their own way to other persons. There has been no liberty of freedom in Far East in history but exersized as usual a moral way of individual to respective member of society. This moral way tends to be rooted in naturally given feeling of emotion rather than reason or rational value. As a whole, the culture of Western world is traditionally oriented on the basis of ontological reason, that is likely to focus on atomistic individualism and self-interest seeking utility. People in West, therefore, used to seek the trancendental value and system, which in consequent, religiously resulted in absolute Christianity. In contrast, instead of logic and reason, the Far Eastern culture is in a cosmopolitan way oriented, so that one should obey the natural order and adjust to cosmos rule. Instead of existential self, there should be only cosmos immanent self, who should seek and practice the morality for harmony and immanence in society and world.

Ⅰ. 序言

Ⅱ. 自然的 人性으로서의 이기심

Ⅲ. 東의 人性 대 西의 理性

Ⅳ. 利他的 感性 대 利己的 感性

Ⅴ. 哲學的 배경

Ⅵ. 東과 西의 異質性과 類似性

Ⅶ. 結言

참고문헌

Abstract

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