상세검색
최근 검색어 전체 삭제
다국어입력
즐겨찾기0
145314.jpg
학술저널

일본의 도시지역정책과 공민연계의 과제와 전망

The transformation of regional development and growth of the “Daisan Sector” in Japan

1. Introduction This paper describes the transformation of regional development in Japan and the growth of the “Daisan Sector”, focusing on the following four points : 1) background in which the “Daisan Sector” arose during the development of Japan’s regional areas, 2) concept and definition of the “Daisan Sector” and its establishment, 3) examples of successes and failures of the “Daisan Sector” and their causes, 4) issues and future challenges for the “Daisan Sector”. 2. The Background in Which the “Daisan Sector” Arose Traditionally, infrastructures in Japan were built primary with public funds. The discrepancies between urban and rural areas further widened during the period of rapid economic expansion in the 1950s and 60s. It become an urgent task to remedy this situation and to promote balanced land development. At that time there were not enough public funds to provide for the infrastructures. One solution was the “Daisan Sector”. This unique Japanese system was created by merging the public sector(the first sector) with the private sector(the second sector). These two sectors jointly invest to set up a company to handle a business undertaking. Ever since, the “Daisan Sector” has been popularly referred to this country as a public-private joint venture. From the middle 1950s to the early 60s, local governments took the initiative to set up “Daisan Sector” to improve and develop ports, distribution systems, airport buildings, housing land, and recreation facilities. In the 1970s, the emphasis shifted to urban development, new traffic systems, and other improvements in urban areas. Local governments were still the main participants in these “Daisan Sector” undertaking. In May 1986, a law was created to promote and utilize the vitality of the private sector. As a result, entities in the “Daisan Sector” sprang up in many of the country. The “Daisan Sector” in recent years has been created and operated primarily by municipalities for a wide range of purposes, including regional development, urban improvement, the development support of high-tech industries, regional revitalization and support, and the support of social education, culture, and welfare. 3. The Definition of the “Daisan Sector” and Its Establishment (1) Definition of the “Daisan Sector” The “Daisan Sector” comprises the followings, regardless of what they are called(public corporations, associations, joint stock companies, etc.) : (1) three legal public corporations, such as the land development corporation, and (2) local corporations excluding those wholly contributed by one or more locals. In addition to these are commercial corporations(narrowly interpreted) governed by the commercial law. They are jointly established by the public sector(including such for-profit corporations as private enterprises : such economy-oriented groups and voluntary organizations as agricultural co-operatives, chambers of commerce and industry, and tourism associations ; and private non-profit corporations). The “Daisan Sector” also includes a legally incorporated foundation and other corporations based on the Civil Law. (2) Establishment of The “Daisan Sector” It is difficult to say just how many of these corporations are currently operating in Japan because there are no nationwide statistics available about their activities. The Ministry of Home Affairs conducts a nation-wide survey of local corporations once every three Years. The ministry’s data estimated the number of the “Daisan Sector” organizations to be 4,414 as of January 1, 1993. 4. Successes and Failures of the “Daisan Sector” and the Reasons (1) Successes and reasons Recently-established “Daisan Sector” organizations greatly vary in size and in the scale of their activities, ranging the operation or large-scale complex facilities to smaller projects strictly designed to revitalize local economy. Generally speaking, those engaged in small-scale operatio

Ⅰ. 서론

Ⅱ. 종래형의 『제3섹터』방식에서 시민참가형에 의한 『죠인트 섹터』방식으로의 신조류

Ⅲ. 도시ㆍ지역정책과제의 새로운 시점과 금후의 정책연구의 방향

Abstract

로딩중