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KCI등재 학술저널

性理学与脱性理学关于认识主体与客体问题上的差异

― 以朱熹与洪大容比较为中心

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性理学家朱熹認为心是認識主體与實踐主體,人伦和庶物在内的一切事、物之理是認識對象,其中孝悌忠信等道德原理是最主要的認識對象。二者关系是認識对象事物之理經由虚灵不昧的认识主体心的睿知所照明摄取,通过认识主体的即物穷理,使内心之理与外物之理達到統一,主體對客體也就有了認識。而脱性理学家洪大容则認为‘實心 是最重要的認識主體,‘實心 是以具有實用价值的事和物之理作为認識對象的真心。二者关系是作为認識主體的實心,日踏實地去接触作为認識對象的實事、實物,以达到认识的目的。即以实心,日踏实地,认识實事、實物之理,以便能够經世致用、利用厚生。從這三方面我们可以看出性理学与脱性理学的差异。

The famous Neo-Confucianist Zhu Xi considered that “Heart” was the cognitive subject and the practice subject, it was the cognitive object that every knowledge including human and all things on earth relations, but the most of all was the principle of morals such as filial piety, righteousness, loyalty and credit. Their relationship was that the cognitive object(every knowledge) was discovered and isolated by the cognitive subject(the wise heart). It can make “heart” and “all things on earth” concordant by exploring rule from thing(即物穷理), and can realize the subject s cognition to object. Hong Dae-Yong, as one of the representative abandoning Neo-Confucianism scholar, considered that “the practical heart” was the most important cognitive subject, it meant to take the practical matter and article as the object of cognition. Their relationship was that “the practical heart” as the object of cognition reached factual matters and factual articles and realized the subject s cognition to object. That is to say: we should put “the practical heart” into practice and reach cognition about factual matters and factual articles, so that we can innovative applications on reality(经世致用) and use everything to secure a better livelihood for people(利用厚生). As we can see the differences between Neo-Confucianism and Abandoning Neo-Confucianism from above three aspects content.

1. 序论

2. 在认识主体问题上的差异

1) 性理学的认识主体心是虛靈不昧、理气之合

2) 脱性理学的认识主体心是气、是实心

3. 在认识客体问题上的差异

1) 性理学的认识对象是事、物之理

2) 脱性理学的认识对象是实事、实物之理

4. 在认识主体与客体关系问题上的差异

1) 性理学的认识主体与对象的关系是即物穷理至极

2) 脱性理学的认识主体与对象的关系是以实心實事,日踏实地

5. 结论

【参考文献】

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