特留份是继承法中的一项重要制度，起源于罗马法上的遗嘱逆伦诉和日耳曼法上对遗产进 行自由份与特留份的划分，具有对遗嘱自由原则进行合理限制的独特价值和功能。目前特留 份制度被多数的大陆法系国家所采用，《朝鲜民主主义人民共和国继承法》第36条在关于特 留份权利人以及特留份份额等方面也做出了一定的规定。然而同属于社会主义国家体制的中 国的现行《中华人民共和国继承法》以及最高人民法院关于贯彻执行《中华人民共和国继承法》若干问题的意见中并没有规定特留份制度，仅规定了给缺乏劳动能力又没有生活来源的 继承人保留必要遗产份额的必留份制度。 本文将重点介绍的朝鲜民主主义人民共和国遗嘱继承法制的历史沿革以及2002年继承法制 定之后的遗嘱制度与特留份制度，同时对比中国的必留份制度，针对必留份制度在司法实践 中出现的一系列问题，对如何补充完善必留份制度以及如何将特留份制度引入中国提出一些 建议。
The Legally secured portions is an important system in the inheritance law. It originated from the Querela inofficiosi testamenti in the Roman law and the division of the portion of free and the special shares of inheritance in the Germanic law. It has unique values and functions that reasonably limited the principle of freedom of will. At present, the system of Legally secured portions has been adopted by most civil law countries. Article 36 of the Law of Succession of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea also provides certain provisions on the rights of a person entitled to Legally secured portions and the proportion of Legally secured portions. However, Law of Succession of the People s Republic of China and the Supreme People’s Court’s opinions on the implementation of the Law on the Succession of the People’s Republic of China, which belongs to the socialist state system, do not provide for the system of legally secured portions, which only provides the system of concerning legal compulsory forced share for heirs who lack the ability to work and have no source of income. This article will focus on the historical evolution of the legal system of the will of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the system of wills and the system of Legally secured portions after the enactment of the Law of Succession in 2002. At the same time, it compares China s system of concerning legal compulsory forced share, and points out a series of problems in the judicial practice of the system of concerning legal compulsory forced share, and puts forward some suggestions on how to supplement and improve the system of concerning legal compulsory forced share and how to introduce the system of Legally secured portions into China.
Ⅱ. 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国遗嘱继承 法制的历史沿革
Ⅲ. 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的遗嘱法 制与特留份制度