Classification of Lacrimal Punctal Stenosis and Its Related Histopathological Feature in Patients with Epiphora
Purpose: To evaluate the classification of punctal stenosis based on the shape of the external punctum, clinical characteristics and histopathologic features. Methods: Patients who experienced tearing and were diagnosed with punctal stenosis were evaluated in this study. Punctal stenosis was classified according to the shape of the lower external punctum, which included membranous type, slit type, horseshoe type, and pinpoint type. Tear meniscus height, 2% fluorescein dye disappearance test and lacrimal pathway irrigation were measured or performed. For treatment, a punctal snip operation and silicone tube placement were performed, and the peripunctal histopathological findings were evaluated. Results: Punctal stenosis was classified into four types: membranous type (17 eyes, 21.5%), slit type (11 eyes, 13.9%), horseshoe type (25 eyes, 31.6%), and pinpoint type (26 eyes, 32.9%). The tear meniscus was significantly higher, and the 2% fluorescein dye disappeared significantly more slowly in the punctal stenosis group. However, correlation of the tear meniscus height and 2% fluorescein dye disappearance test with the punctum shape was not statistically significant. A history of previous chemotherapy was significantly associated with the occurrence of punctal stenosis, especially the membranous type (p < 0.05). Histopathologic evaluation of the punctum showed differences between the punctum types. Pinpoint puncta exhibited a high density of muscle fibers, while they were faintly visible in the membranous type. Conclusions: Acquired punctal stenosis has various shapes, and the major types of stenotic puncta exhibited unique histopathologic features. Punctal stenosis and its pathophysiology may be related to multiple factors, such as age and systemic 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy history.
Materials and Methods
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