Factors Affecting Long-term Myopic Regression after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis and Laser-assisted Subepithelial Keratectomy for Moderate Myopia
Purpose: High myopia is known to be a risk factor for long-term regression after laser refractive surgery. There have been few studies about the correction of moderate myopias that did not need retreatment after long-term follow-up. We evaluated 10 years of change in visual acuity and refractive power in eyes with moderate myopia after laser refractive surgery. Methods: We included patients that had undergone laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) to correct their myopia and that had at least 10 years of follow-up. We evaluated the stability of visual acuity in terms of safety, efficacy, and refractive changes at examinations 6 months and 1, 2, 5, 7, and 10 years after surgery. Results: The study evaluated 62 eyes (36 eyes in LASIK patients and 26 eyes in LASEK patients). In both groups, the efficacy index tended to decrease, and it was consistently higher in the LASEK group compared to the LASIK group over the 10 years of follow-up. The safety index improved over 10 years and was always higher than 0.9 in both groups. The difference between the spherical equivalent at 6 months postoperatively and later periods was statistically significant after 5, 7, and 10 years in both groups (LASIK, p = 0.036, p = 0.003, and p < 0.001, respectively; LASEK, p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001, respectively). Ten years after surgery, 26 eyes (66.7%) in the LASIK group and 19 eyes (73.1%) in the LASEK group had myopia greater than 1 diopter. In comparison with the thickness at 6 months postoperatively, central corneal thickness was significantly increased after 5, 7, and 10 years in both LASIK and LASEK groups (LASIK, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p< 0.001, respectively; LASEK, p = 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Moderately myopic eyes showed progressive myopic shifting and corneal thickening after LASIK and LASEK during 10 years of follow-up. We also found that early refractive regression may indicate the long-term refractive outcome.
Materials and Methods
Conflict of Interest