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KCI등재 학술저널

헝가리 테러하우스 박물관의 전시를 통해 본 역사정치

- 호르띠 집권시기의 테러, 1956년 반공혁명 전시를 중심으로 -

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헝가리 테러하우스 박물관은 과거에 대한 진지한 반성을 토대로 한 ‘성찰적’ 역사인식의 결과물이다. 이 박물관이 다루는 시기는 헝가리 역사상 암흑기라 할 2차 세계대전 중 파시스트 정권이 권력을 잡았던 시기와 전후 공산당이 정권을 장악한 1949년부터 1989년까지로, 특히 1956년 10월 23일 헝가리 수도인 부다페스트에서 발생한 ‘헝가리혁명’이 가장 중요한 주제이다. 따라서 이 박물관은 과거 파시스트 시대와 사회주의 시대(1948-1989), 특히 1956년 반소 헝가리 혁명이후 헝가리 사회에 행해졌던 테러와 고문, 반인권적 행위를 역사적 기억의 공간으로 재현시켜 놓은 곳으로서, 자신의 과거에 대한 영웅주의적 승리사관에서 탈피하여 반성과 회고를 바탕으로 하는 ‘성찰적’ 접근 방식을 잘 도입한 박물관이라고 할 수 있으며, 이는 한국의 현대사 박물관에도 시사하는 바가 매우 크다고 할 수 있다.

The Terror House Museum was built as a space of historical memory for terror, torture and human rights abuses inflicted during the Fascist and socialist period. The events after the Soviet crushing of the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 receive particular focus. The House of Terror Museum was constructed with overt political aims. In the year 2000, at the dawn of a new millennium, Hungarian society was grappling with historical controversies. On the eve of an election, opposition party politicians, whose party was the successor to the former ruling-Communist Party, asked voters whether they preferred life under the previous communist regime, or whether life was better under the post-transition capitalism of the ruling party. Such a simplistic and mercantile campaign logic became the cause of major controversy during the election. As a result, it dawned on many that there was a real need for ‘reflective history’ built upon genuine critical reflection on the past. The debate and controversy, and resulting reflections led to consensus on the need for a contemporary history museum - which became the House of Terror. The museum deals with what is commonly termed the ‘dark age’ in Hungarian history - the fascist government during World War Two - and also the period of communist rule between 1949 and 1989. The main theme of the museum, however, is the ‘Hungarian Revolution’ that took place in Budapest on 23rd October 1956. It is the most important event in Hungary’s modern history, and was violently put down when the Soviet Red Army intervened and reimposed oppressive communist rule. As Hungary left socialism behind in 1989 and transitioned to democracy, the acts of the previous communist regime were investigated, and communist tyranny revealed. To ensure that what was done is remembered and that communism will not return, the regime’s system of surveillance and terror was put on public display at the museum. Thus, rather than a museum of heroic victory, one that seeks to look back and reflect on the past was needed. This allows the Hungarian people to encounter directly the facts of the mistakes and injustices perpetrated by their fellow countrymen and women in the past.

I. 서론

II. 박물관 건립에 따른 정치적 논란과 건립과정

III. 박물관의 전시 구성 특징, 정치적 함의

IV. 결론

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