마틴 루터(Martin Luther)의 종교개혁은 500주년을 맞이하기까지 기독교사에 커다란 영향을 미쳤다. 루터가 종교개혁을 시도하는 전체적 과정중의 하나인 성경번역은 신학적 담론의 대상일 수도 있지만, 사회언어학적 관점에서도 매우 주목되는 연구대상이기도 하다. 루터의 성경번역은 표준 독일어의 확립 또는 독일어의 통일에 결정적으로 기여하였다. 루터 성경번역본의 출현으로 통일된 언어로 독일민족의 정체성을 구축하고 연대의식을 조성하는데 중요한 일차적 사회언어적 토대가 되었다. 당시에는 글을 읽을 수 있는 사람이 소수였다. 그래서 가족 또는 농가가 저녁마다 한 곳에 모여서 글을 읽을 수 있는 사람이 성경을 읽어주었다. 루터의 독일어 성경은 오랫동안 독일내 개신교 지역 학교에서 유일한 교재로 사용되었다. 이후 19세기에 이르러서 여러 방언을 초월하여 구어(口語) 차원에서도 표준독일어가 확립되었으며, 이는 현대 독어 시기에 들어서도 계속 진화를 거듭하고 있는 중이다. 루터는 기독교 개혁에 커다란 기여를 하였지만, 독일어사에서도 결코 제외될 수 없는 위대한 언어마술사였다.
While Martin Luther’s Reformation and Bible translation may be one of the most important subject in the theological discourse, it is also a subject of great interest for sociolinguistic perspective. As society is formed, language is the primary means of communication to develop and maintain the identity of a society. The use of language is a unique phenomenon pertaining only to humans, which has an important influence on learning and thinking(思考). Therefore, Luther’s translation of the Biblecan also be studied in terms of sociolinguistics. Luther’s translation of the Bible also had an important impact on the transformation of the German language, which was a fundamental element in maintaining the identity of the German nation. The translation of the Bible enabled the Germans to communicate remarkably and it further contributed to the formation on the outlook of the world of the society members as well as the enhancement of the collective identity. The German language is one of the Germanic languages and categorized under the Indo-Germanic language. It is estimated that the Indo-Germanic language was developed from 1,000 BC. Along with English and Dutch, German language belongs to the West Germanic languages group. In addition, German ancestors using the German language originate from Germanic tribes. The Germanic culture and language dates back to the second century BC. Since then, German language has undergone several stages of development including Old High German (Althochdeutsch), Middle High German (Mittelhochdeutsch), Early New High German (Frühneuhochdeutsch), and New High German (Neuhochdeutsch). Luther’s translation was not entirely new, as there already existed different German translations when he began translating the Bible. At that time, there were 18 different German translations of the Bible already being used from a hundred years ago. After 1521, Luther first translated the New Testament in Wartburg castle and then translated the Old Testament. The New Testament translated from the second edition of the Greek New Testament of Erasmus as a script, while the Old Testament was directly translated from the 『Brescia Hebrew Bible (1494)』. While avoiding the common translation error of existing bibles that were translated from the Latin version of the Bible (Vulgata), Luther proceeded his translation work based on the German spoken by the common people. While opening the era of the Early New High German (Frühneuhochdeutsch) in the German language history, Luther’s translation of the Bible also served as a basis of standardization of the various dialects used in various regions. As the discovery of printing of Johannes Gutenberg at that time enabled mass printing, the Lutheran Bible was explosively increasing in demand, and it was a decisive event in which standard German language was established. Luther’s use of German became a common language used by Germans in the nineteenth century. Luther’s translation of the Bible contributed in the formation of a new language, a new worldview, as well as a new religious belief that anyone can face God in person.
Ⅰ. 들어가는 말
Ⅱ. 독일어족(獨逸語族)에 대한 이해 - 독일어 변천 약사(略史)
Ⅲ. 마틴 루터의 성경번역과 표준독일어 확립