Purpose: To investigate the relationship between vitamin D and glaucoma. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study included subjects who underwent a health screening at the Health Screening Center of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from August 2012 to July 2013. All fundus photographs were reviewed by ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists determined if an eye was glaucomatous based on the criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and by the appearance of the retinal nerve fiber layer and optic disc. If the subjects previously underwent an ophthalmologic examination, they were enrolled based on the documented history. In addition to fundus photographs, each participant underwent a systemic examination including blood sampling and sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaires. The subjects were divided into five groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to assess possible associations between elevated glaucoma risk and systemic factors with a p < 0.2 on univariate analysis. Results: Of the 169,208 subjects older than 20 years, 123,331 were eligible for the study. There was no difference in the prevalence of glaucoma according to quintile of serum 25(OH)D level based on sex (p = 0.412 for males, p = 0.169 for females). According to the multivariable-adjusted logistic analysis, the odds ratio of glaucoma for the fourth quintile was significantly lower than that of the first quintile in females (odds ratio, 0.713; 95% confidence interval, 0.520 to 0.979). Conclusions: Lower 25(OH)D level was significantly associated with an elevated risk of glaucoma in females compared with higher 25(OH)D level. Further evaluation is needed to investigate the relationship between glaucoma and vitamin D.
Materials and Methods
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