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KCI등재 학술저널

체코슬로바키아의 공산화과정

- 고트발트의 활동 및 역할을 중심으로

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1945년 10월 20일 프라하에서 소집된 체코슬로바키아 임시의회에서 베네시가 다시 대통령으로 선출되었다. 같은 날 제 2기 피에르린게르 정부도 공식적으로 출범했다. 그리고 이 정부 주관으로 실시된 총선에서 공산당은 기대이상의 압승을 거두었다. 이렇게 총선에서 최다 의석을 차지한 공산당은 정부구성권을 부여받았고 그 과정에서 당시 이 당의 의장이었던 고트발트가 핵심적 역할을 담당했다. 모두 24개 부서로 구성된 신정부에서 공산당은 내무장관직을 위시한 중요한 각료직 9개를 차지했다. 이렇게 공산당이 정부의 중요 부서들을 차지하게 됨에 따라 이후 체코슬로바키아 정국은 공산당의 독주를 저지하려는 비공산당 계열의 노력과 맞물러 긴장감이 증대되기 시작했다. 1947년 가을부터 체코슬로바키아 정치는 민주주의를 방어하기 위한 투쟁에 접어들었는데 그것은 절대 권력을 장악하기 위한 공산당의 시도가 본격화된데서 비롯된 것 같다. 이러한 상황 하에서 1947년 가을부터 민족 사회당, 인민당, 사회민주당이 비공산연합을 구축했으나, 이때는 이미 시기적으로 때가 늦었다. 점차적으로 인민 민주주의 정치체제는 위기적 상황에 빠지게 되었고. 정부 및 의회에서 권력을 장악한 공산당은 1948년 6월 14일 체코슬로바키아 연방 의회에서 고트발트를 대통령으로 선출하는 등 그들 정책을 강력히 추진했다. 그리고 이것은 그동안 진행된 체코슬로바키아 공산화과정의 종료를 의미하는 것이라 하겠다.

In March 1945, E.Beneš, who had been elected President of Czechoslovakia 1935-1938 and who had been head of the Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile in London since 1941, agreed to form a National Front government with K.Gottwald. As part of the deal, Gottwald became deputy premier under Z.Fierlinger. In 1946, Gottwald gave up the secretary-general’s post to R.Slansky and was elected to the new position of party chairman. That March, he led the party to an astonishing 38% of the votes. This was easily the KSC(Komunistická Strana Čekoslovenska)’s best performance in an election. As it turned out, it would be the best showing by a European Communist party in a free election. By the summer of 1947, however, the KSC’s popularity had significantly dwindled, and most observers believed Gottwald would be turned out of office at the elections due for May 1948. The Communists’ dwindling popularity, prompted J.Stalin to order Gottwald to begin efforts to set up an undisguised Communist regime in Czechoslovakia. Outwardly, though, Gottwald kept up the appearance of working within the system, announcing that he intended to lead the Communists to an absolute majority in the upcoming election-something no Czechoslovak party had ever done. The endgame began in February 1948, when a majority of the Cabinet directed the Communist interior minister, V.Nosek, to stop packing the police force with Communists. Nosek ignored this directive, with Gottwald’s support. In response, 12 non-Communist ministers resigned. They believed that without their support, Gottwald would be unable to govern and be forced to either give way or resign himself. Beneš initially supported their position, and refused to accept their resignations. Gottwald not only refused to resign, but demanded the appointment of a Communist-dominated government under threat of a general strike. His Communist colleagues occupied the offices of the non-Communist ministers. On 25.February, Beneš, fearing Soviet intervention, gave in. He accepted the resignations of the non-Communist ministers and appointed a new government in accordance with Gottwald’s specifications. Although ostensibly still a coalition, it was dominated by Communists and pro-Moscow Social Democrats. The other parties were still nominally represented, but with the exception of Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk they were fellow travellers handpicked by the Communists. From this date forward, Gottwald was effectively the most powerful man in Czechoslovakia. On 9 May, the National Assembly approved the so-called Ninth-of-May Constitution, While it was not a completely Communist document, its Communist imprint was strong enough that Beneš refused to sign it. He resigned on 2 June. In accordance with the 1920 Constitution, Gottwald took over post presidential functions until 14 June, when he was formally elected as President.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 체코슬로바키아의 국권 회복

Ⅲ. 코시체 프로그램(Košický program)의 내용과 문제점

Ⅳ. 공산당의 영향력 확대와 베네시의 대응

Ⅴ. 결어

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