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KCI등재 학술저널

The Russo-Japanese War and the Crisis Diplomacy of Great Han Empire

- connected with Yongampo Incident -

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본 연구는 러일개전전 대한제국의 한정(韓廷)이 용암포사건과 압록강 위기를 둘러싼 대응조치에 직간접적으로 개입하고 있었다는 역사적 사실에 주목하여, 그 외교적 조치를 국제관계적 시각에서 재구성한 것이다. 이를 위해 우선 배경이 된 1, 2차 용암포조차교섭과 압록강 위기를 러일교섭과 연계하였다. 그리고 전쟁위기에 대처한 대한제국의 다각적인 외교 조치들을 재구성해 보고, 이와 연동된 대한제국의 인아거일(引俄拒日)기도를 주러시아공사 이범진의 활동을 통해 조명해 본 것이다 1903년 8월 초, 일본과 러시아와의 교섭이 시작되자 고종은 전쟁발발을 기정사실화하고 이에 대한 조치, 즉 한반도의 전쟁 방지를 위한 다각적인 외교조처를 취했다. 중립화 시도, 경의철도부설권관련조치, 압록강안 개방 기도, 용암포 조차 교섭기도 및 러일간 직접교섭요구는 각각이 별개의 독자성을 띄고 있음에도 불구하고, 모두 상호 연계된 조치였고, 그것은 동아시아의 국제관계를 조망하고 취해진 대한제국식 견제와 균형을 모색한 전방위적 외교조치였다. 당시 한정이 조차와 개방의 심각성, 즉 양자가 한반도 위기와 전쟁발발과 직결된 문제임을 간파하고 있었던 사실을 감안한다면, 이와 같은 조치는 전쟁 방지, 위기관리를 위한 일관된 현실적인 대응 조치였다 그것은 일본과 러시아의 대립을 이용한 매우 심사숙고한 정책이었다. 당시 고종은 러일간의 협상은 전쟁을 하기 위한 하나의 절차에 지나지 않는 것으로 파악하고 있었으며, 러시아보다는 일본이 전쟁에 대해 더욱 적극적이라는 인식을 가지고 있었다 이러한 고종의 인식은 당시의 정세를 매우 적확하게 파악하고 있었다는 것을 의미하는 것으로 주목된다. 이범진의 대러 외교 활동 역시 한반도 전쟁방지와 독립보존이라는 큰 틀에서 이루어진 것이었다. 그는 고종이 러시아를 끌어들여 한반도의 전쟁방지를 위해 펼친 외교활동의 중심에 있었고, 그것은 일종의 대한제국기 북방외교의 전형이었다고 할 수 있다. 하지만 대한제국은 거대한 제국주의 폭풍의 한가운데 있었기 때문에 실현할 수 없었을 뿐이었다.

In this paper, I was noted that Great Han’s Emperor Gojong, who took directly or indirectly response measures surrounding Yongampo Lease Treaty and the Yalu Crisis before the Russo-Japanese War. Especially, I tried to reconsider Great Han Empire’s diplomatic activities from the viewpoint of the international relations. To do this, I focused on the background of 1st & 2nd Yongampo Lease Treaty and the Yalu Crisis. And it was linked to the Russo-Japanese negotiations from September 1903 to February 1904. For the next step, dealt with the multilateral diplomatic measures of Great Han Empire for preventing war. Finally, in this regard, tried to recast diplomatic activities of the Great Han Empire. Before the war, the Emperor had detected that the war will occur. And he actively responded to Yongampo Incidents. It is clearly revealed that there was a crisis diplomacy of the Great Han Empire before the war. Faced with the Yalu Crisis, the Great Han Empire was ready to respond and take multilateral measures for preventing war and preserving peace. From August to October, the Great Han Empire intensively took measures. These can be classified broadly into four actions: Attempts to neutralize the Korean peninsula in wartime, Attempts related to the Kyungui railway concession, The initiative for opening the ports of the Yalu riverside, and Attempts to renegotiate the Yongampo lease treaty and require a separate negotiation between Russia and Japan about the Yongampo affairs. But, these crises once again, had been changed by the new phase. On October 8, 1903, the Treaty of Trade and Commerce was signed by the Unites States, Japan and China. It was revealed that the treaty was working in conjunction with an Anglo-Japanese Alliance and the Open Door policy of United States. The opening of Andong and Mukden located in the Yalu area was a diplomatic shock and enough to irritate Russia. The opening of Manchuria was realized by the Treaty of Trade and Commerce. Then, the remaining problem was that the Yalu Issue needed a resolution. Therefore, the Yalu problem, so called korean problem was focused on the interests of western powers and the Yalu river issue has become international issues. Now, tensions between the interested parties came to a peak. To cope with this situation, Korea as well as Japan and Russia immediately responded. Before the outbreak of war, Great Han’s Emperor Gojong has already known that negotiations between Russia and Japan were nothing but more than one procedure, and perceived that Japan was more aggressive than Russia. It was noticed that Gojong had been fully understood the international situation of Northeast Asia. And the diplomatic activities of Lee Bumjin also had been consisting of a larger framework to preventing war and preserving peace. In these points of view, he was in the center of diplomatic activities which the Emperor took measures for preventing war. It might be so called a kind of “Northern diplomacy” of Great Han Empire. But it could not be realized. The reason why was that Great Han Empire has been centered in a huge storm of imperialism.

Preface

Ⅰ. 2nd Yongampo Lease Treaty and Russo-Japanese Negotiations in 1903

Ⅱ. Multilateral Foreign Policy of Great Han Empire for preventing war

Ⅲ. Yalu crisis and Minister Lee’s diplomatic activities toward Russia

Conclusion

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