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KCI등재 학술저널

멜란히톤(P.Melanchton)의 학문 및 정치적 활동

- 종교개혁시기를 중심으로 -

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루터가 종교개혁기의 사상 전반을 주도했다면 멜란히톤은 이 시기의 탁월한 교육실천가였다. 즉 멜란히톤은 전 신민에게 평등하게 제공해야 할 국민교육이 수도원학교 교육에서 벗어나 신민전체의 삶을 증대시킬 수 있는 교육으로 변형되어야 하며 그러한 것은 올바른 인문주의 교육을 통해 가능하다는 루터의 주장을 자신의 교육실천의 준거로 삼았던 것이다. 나아가 멜란히톤은 인문주의적 교육관에 따라 종교개혁 운동에 적극적으로 동참하는 것 자체를 교육실천으로 이해하려고 했다. 이후부터 이 인물은 당시 부각된 종교적, 사회적, 그리고 정치적 부조리에 과감히 대응하던 종교개혁이 성공적으로 안착하는데 필요한 방법을 교육실천에서 찾는데 주력했고 그 과정에서 괄목할 만한 성과도 거두었다. 실제적으로 멜란히톤은 고전적 인문주의에 대한 자신의 해박하고 명백한 진리의식을 바탕으로 ‘독일학교교육의 이상 및 계획’이라는 교육개혁안을 제시하고, 실천하는데 주력했다. 즉 그는 독일의 각급학교에서 채택한 수업체제에 인문주의-신교주의적 수업모델을 제시하는 선봉장 역할을 담당했던 것이다. 그리고 교육현장에서 인문주의와 신교주의를 조화롭게 발전시키려는 그의 실천적 노력은 당시 독일정신 구현에도 기초적 토대를 제공했다.

Melanchton was born Philipp Schwarzerdt on 16 February 1497,at Bretten, near Karlsruhe, where his father Schwarzerdt was armorer to Philipp, Count Palatine of the Rhein. In 1507 he was sent to the Latin school at Pforzheim where the rector, Georg Simler of Wimpfen, introduced him to the Latin and Greek poers and Aristotele. He was influenced by his great-uncle Johann Reuchlin, brother of his maternal granmother, a representative humanist. It was Reuchelin who suggested the change from Schwarzerdt, into the Greek equival Melanchton, a custom which was usual among humanists of that time. Still young, he enterde in 1509 the University Heidelberg where he studied philosophy, rethoric, and astronomy/astrology, and was known as a good Greek scholar. On being refused the degree of master in 1512 on account of his youth, he went to Tubingen, where he continued humanistic studies, but also worked on jurisprudence, mathematics, and medicine. While there, he was taught the technical aspects of astrology by Johannes Stofflerike. Having taken the degree of master in 1516, he began to study theology. Under the influence of men like Reuchelin and Erasmus he became convinced that ture Christianity was something different from scholastic theology as it was taught ay the university. Opposed as a reformer at Tubingen, he accepted a call to the University of Wittenberg by Martin Luther, recommened by his grand-uncle Johann Reuchelin. Melanchton became Professor of the Greek language in Wittenberg at the age of 21. As a philologist and pedagogue Melanchton was the spiritual heir of the South German humanists, of men like Reuchiln, Wimpheling, and Rodolphus Agricola, who reprasented an ethical conception of the humanities. The liberal arts and classical education was for him only a means to an ethical and religisus end. The ancient classics were for him in the first place the sources of a purer knowledge, but they were also the best means of educating the youth both by their beauty of form and by their ethical conten. By his organizing activity in the sphere of educational institutions and by his compilations of Latin and Greek grammars and commentaries, Melanchton became the founder of the learned school of Evangelical Germany, a combination of humanistic and Christian ideals. In philosophy also Melanchton was the teacher of the whole German Protestant world.

머리말

1. 학문적 활동

2. 종교개혁기의 정치적 활동

3. 인문주의적 교육사상의 내용

4. 인문주의적 교육사상의 이행방법

5. 인문주의적 교육사상의 실천 및 한계성

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