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KCI등재 학술저널

오타카르 2세(Otakar II)의 치세

- 영토 확장정책 및 외교정책을 중심으로 -

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1253년 체코 왕국의 위정자로 즉위한 오타카르 2세는 지속적으로 영토확장정책을 펼쳤고 거기서 괄목할 만한 성과도 거두었다. 이에 따라 그는 자신이 선호하지 않는 인물이 독일 왕으로 등극하는 것을 막을 수 있었을 뿐만 아니라 신성로마제국 내에서 방해 없이 제 권리를 행사할 수 있을 정도의 막강한 권한도 가지게 되었다. 그러나 이 당시 신성로마제국내 제후들은 지나치게 강력한 군주가 등장하는 것을 원하지 않았고, 교황청 역시 비슷한 이유로 오타카르 2세의 독일 왕 즉위를 지지하지 않았다. 따라서 1273년 10월 1일 무명의 합스부르크 가문출신의 루돌프가 독일왕으로 선출되는 이변이 발생했다. 이렇게 루돌프가 독일 왕으로 선출됨에 따라 오타카르 2세는 자신의 입장을 밝혀야 했고 거기서 그는 루돌프의 선출을 인정할 수 없다는 것을 명백히 했다. 이렇게 오타카르 2세의 입장이 밝혀짐에 따라 루돌프는 불법적으로 오타카르 2세가 획득한 제국 영토반환을 요구했고 그것에 대한 판결을 위해 제국재판협의회가 아우구스부르크에서 개최되었다. 그런데 예상과는 달리 제국재판협의회에서 오타카르 2세가 패소함에 따라 양인 사이의 전쟁은 피할 수 없게 되었다. 이렇게 시작된 전쟁에서 오타카르 2세가 패배함에 따라 루돌프는 알프스의 모든 지역과 오스트리아 점령지를 차지하는 우월적 지위도 확보하게 되었다. 이후부터 오타카르 2세는 재기의 기회를 모색했고 그것을 위한 마지막 결전도 준비했다. 그러나 루돌프는 다시 자신의 경쟁자를 격파했고 오타카르 2세는 후퇴과정에서 목숨까지 잃게 되었다. 이에 따라 오타카르 2세의 원대한 야망은 무산되었고 그가 구축한 광대한 왕국 역시 붕괴되었다.

Ottokar was the second son of King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia. Named after his grandfather King Ottokar I, he was originally educated for the role of an ecclesiastical administrator, while his elder brother Vladislaus was designated the heir of the Bohemia kingdom. He was possibly educated by the Bohemian chancellor Philip of Spanheim, who would later become a rival for the rule in the Duchy of Carinthia. When his brother Vladislaus died in 1247, Ottokar suddenly became the heir to the Bohemian throne. As new heir, his father appointed him Margrave of Moravia and Ottokar took his residence in Brno, where he was occupied with the reconstruction of the Moravian lands devastated by Mongol raids. In 1248 he was enticed by discontented nobles to lead a rebellion against his father King Wenceslaus, During the rebellion he was elected the younger King(mladší král) on 31 July 1248 and temporarily expelled his father from Prague Castle. However, he was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV, whereafter Wnnceslaus finally managed to defeat the rebels and imprisoned his son at Přimda Castle. Father and son were eventually reconciled to assist the king’s aim of acquiring the neighbouring Duchy of Austria. In 1253, King Winceslaus died and Ottokar succeeded his father as King of Bohemia. After the death of the German King Konrad IV in 1254 while his son Conradin was still a minor, Ottokar also hoped to obtain the Imperial dignity- as King of the Romans- for himself. However, his election bid was unsuccessful and Count William II of Holland, German antiking since, was generally recognised. During the following peace phase, King Ottokar II led two crusade expeditions against the pagan Old Prussians. Königsberg(now Kaliningrad, Russia), founded in 1255 by the Teutonic Order, was named in his honour and later became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia. During the Imperial Interregnum, Ottokar could increase his personal influence in the throne quarrel between Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso of Castile. After Richard of Cornwall had died in April 1272 and the claims raised by Alfonso of Castile were denied by Pope Gregory X, a new election for the Imperial German throne took place in 1273. However, King Ottokar II was not the successful candidate again, as the electors voted for the “little count” Rudolf of Habsburg, Ottokar’s last and finally victorious rival. Ottokar refused to acknowledge Rudolf’s election, and urged the Pope to adopt a similar policy. In 1275 Rudolf placed Ottokar under the Imperial ban and besieged his Hofburg residence in Vienna, while the Bohemian land were shaken by a rebellion led by the Vitkovici noble Zavis of Falkenstein. This compelled Ottokar in November 1276 to sign a new treaty by which he gave up all claims to Austria and neighboring duchies. Two years later, King Ottokar II made a last attempt to recover his lost lands by force. He gatherd a large army to meet the force of Rudolf and ally King Ladislaus IV of Hungary in the Battle on the Marchfeld on 26 August 1278, where he was defeated and killed, possibly by his own liensmen. With Ottokar’s rule, the Premyslids reached the peak of their power in the Holy Roman Empire. His expectations of imperial crown, however, were never fulfilled.

머리말

1. 왕위등극 이전의 활동

2. 영토확장정책

3. 내정개혁과 귀족들의 대응

4. 루돌프와의 대립과 몰락

결어

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