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KCI등재 학술저널

합스부르크가문의 대보헤미아 정책과 보헤미아 귀족들의 대응책

- 페르디난트 1세의 등극부터 빌라 호라(Bilá hora)전투 이후까지의 시기를 중심으로

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When the childless King Louis II died fighting the Turks at Mohacs in 1526, his Habsburg widow Mary and brother-in-law Ferdinand were able to secure the latter’s election as King of Bohemia and Hungary. Though both nation’s native dynasties had died out at the beginning of the fourteenth century, they had continued to prosper under a series of elected foreign rulers, culminating with the personal union of the two kingdoms under the Jagellon Kings Ladislas (1491-1516) and the ill-fated Louis II(1516-1526). The sixteenth-century Habsburgs had proven ineffective in opposing the spread of Protestantism within the monarchy. Ferdinand’s son Maximilian II had evinced Protestant inclinations in his own personal life and worship. His successor, the cosmopolitian Rudolph II, had actually turned his court at Prague into a center for unorthodox ideas and expressions that ranged from unconventional art to alchemy and a genuine interest in scientific inquiry. The successor to Rodolf II, Matthas I was convinced that a uniformly Catholic society could be trusted to remain steadfastly loyal to the crown. On March 1617, as Emperor Matthias decided, his cousin Ferdinand of Styria-a fiercely devout Catholic-was named his successor as King of Bohemia. And same year the Bohemian Diet elected Ferdinand as the king of Bohemia. Ferdinand’s election alarmed Bohemian Protestants, who feared the loss of their religious rights. In May 1618, the Bohemian revolt began when the rebels threw two Catholic members of the Bohemian royal council from a window some seventy feet above the ground. Both councilors fell into a pile of manure and suffered only minor injuries. This incident became known as the Defenestration of Prague. To be sure this was neither the first nor the last defenestration in the city’s history. The Bohemian rebels of 1618 intended their actions to symbolize a clear break with the established authority. Taking control of Prague, the Bohemian rebels declared Ferdinand was deposed and elected a new king, Frederick V, the elector of the Palatinate in western Germany and a Calvinist. The German Protestant Union, which Frederick V headed, provided some aid to the Bohemian rebels. Emperor Ferdinand II won the support of King Maximilian I of Bavaria, the leader of the Catholic League. Troops of the Holy Roman Empire and Bavaria, commanded by Baron Tilly, invaded Bohemia. In November 1620, Tilly had a decisive victory over the forces of Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain near Prague. Frederick, known derisively as the “Winter King,” fled to Holland. In June 1621 Ferdinand II executed twenty-seven rebel leaders, whose corpses were then mutilated and exposed for several years on Prague’s Charles Bridge. Several hundred more noble and burgher families were punished with the confiscation of their wealth. In addition to punishing individuals, Ferdinand II also destroyed the underlying structures that had nourished the closely connected evils of political opposition and Protestantism. The defeat of the Bohemian Revolt effectively meant the end of the sovereignty of the Czech state. The period of re-Catholicisation and gradual Germanisation of Bohemian towns which followed, is regarded as three hundred years of ‘darkness’ and sufferering under foreign domination from which the Czech nation was liberated only in 1918, which was the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 페르디난트 1세(Ferdinand I)

Ⅲ. 루돌프 2세(Rudolf II)

Ⅳ. 마티아스(Matthias)

Ⅴ. 페르디난트 2세(Ferdinand II)

Ⅵ. 결어

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