Clamor refers to ‘outcry,’ or ‘shouting’ in Roman language. It was used as a juridical term as well as a legal term. Romans used the word ‘clamor’ to make a plea and complain to the court. Clamor became more specified, implying legal significance in the Middle Ages. It can be confirmed through legal clamor rendered in the charters and capitulary which were issued by Carolingian kings and judges. 11th century charters written in west France showed the cases of clamor appealing to secular powers. These charters were related to the depredations of monastery properties. After hearing from both sides in the placitum local lords who accepted clamor made decisions similar to the sentence of court. Although clamor was not a public court of justice, the procedure of hearing and decision making conveyed a judicial character. In the later tenth century, monks realized that they could not protect their properties and community from the trespassing of laity and the domination of local bishops by relying on juridical clamor. So they showed an inclination to make clamor addressed to God and patron saints for help instead of depending on human institutions. Monastic clamor was settled as a type of liturgy in the late 11th century. Customs collection which was written by Bernard of Cluny in 1075 included a subject title “under the predicaments how clamor to be made before people and to God” in which introduced a procedure of liturgical clamor in detail. Clamor as a liturgy was performed in conjunction with ‘humiliation of relics.’ Ministers of the church cover the pavement before the altar with a coarse cloth, and on this they place the crucifix, the text of Gospels, and the relics of saints. Humiliation of relics and malediction were significant components of liturgy with clamor. It can be said that performance of the mixed procession clamor projected onto God was established as a definite type of liturgy in the late 11th century.
Ⅱ. 클라모르(clamor)의 기원과 사법적(juridical clamor) 성격
Ⅲ. 수도원 침탈과 분쟁 해결 방식
Ⅳ. 탄원기도로서 전례적 클라모르(liturgical clamor)