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KCI등재 학술저널

팔라츠키의 정치활동과 그 한계성

- 2월칙령 발표이후부터 러시아 방문까지의 시기를 중심으로

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Following the suppression of the 1848 revolutions in the Habsburg lands, political activity was outlawed, but the failures of this “neoabsolutist” system, especially the losses in the Italian War of 1859, cauesd Emperor Francis Joseph I to change course. As a result, the so called constitutional era in the Austrian Empire was launched in 1860, and provincial diets reappeared, an imperial parliament(the Reichsrat) was established in Vienna, and political parties were founded. After the revolution of 1848 failed, Palacky retreated to scholarly work but returned to public life in 1860, when a new constitution revived political activity in the empire. As the leader of the Czech National Party, he fought for the autonomy of the Bohemian crown lands on the basis of historic state rights, and supported a tactical alliance with the conservative great landowners to achieve this goal. The aristocratic alliance, along with his support for Czech abstention from governmental bodies such as the imperial parliament, eventually caused the party to split between “Old Czechs,” who supported his program, and “Young Czechs,” who favored a more progressive program and activist stance. The Seven Weeks’ war in the summer of 1866 led to the decisive defeat of Austria at Koniggratz and consequent exclusion of Austria from German affairs. The military disator compelled Francis Joseph I to come to terms with the Magyars. The subsequent Ausgleich, or Compromise of 1867 transformed the Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy. This monarchy, in effect, permitted the German-speaking Austrians and the Hungarians Magyars to dominate all other nationalities in their respective states. Many of the other national groups within the empire- including the Czechs, the Ruthenians, and the Serbo-Croatiansopposed the Compromise of 1867. The most vicious critics were the Czechs of Bohemia. The Compromise of 1867, which created the new state of Austria-Hungary out of the old empire, gave a crushing blow to Palacky’s efforts, and he warned it to be the negotiations, “We were here before Austria and we will be here after it is gone”. Since then Palacky abandoned a Austroslavism and was interested in Slavism.. He had both Russian and French support and got a national independence of the Czech. But this made end with the failure. Gradually he reaffirmed that the Austrian Empire was the only guarantee of rights of the Czech. Disillusioned by the repeated failure of Czech political efforts, he urged his countrymen to cultivate moral and cultural superiority over their enemies. At that time he favored a policy of trialism or triple monarchy. Palacky died in 1876 and his reputation as the “Father of the Czech Nation” firmly established.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 이중체제의 문제점 제기

Ⅲ. 이중체제의 도입과 체코 정치가들의 반발

Ⅳ. 팔라츠키 및 체코 정치가들의 러시아 방문

Ⅴ. 결어

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