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KCI등재 학술저널

청교도, 공동체, 그리고 젠더체계에 대한 위협

- 17~18세기 뉴잉글랜드지방의 마녀사냥 -

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The purpose of this study is to get to the bottom of correlation between witch-hunting and gender issue in New-England. The Puritans emigrated to New England with the hope of construction of ideal puritan society. But soon after that, their community was weaken by conflict and disruption. Therefore, their matter in hand was to make strengthen community by controlling enemies who menaced order of their community. In this circumstance, witch-hunting was useful means which could realize their purpose. Not all New Englanders were equally vulnerable to the accusation of witchcraft. Particular people were remarkably and periodically prosecuted. The most salient characteristic of witchs was their sex: female. Female witches were vulnerable to trial, conviction and execution but male witches were not. Women who was prosecuted can be classified as follows. First, female challengers of the religious system were vulnerable to the accusation of witchcraft. By treating female dissent as evidence of witchcraft as well as heresy, the authorities may have effectively silenced Puritan women s opposition. Second, women who followed occupations which men had been engaged in were vulnerable to the accusation of witchcraft. They were considered to threat men s vested rights. Third, Women who inherited a large amount of money from her father or husband were vulnerable to the accusation of witchcraft. These women were aberrations in a society with an inheritance system designed to keep property in the hands of men. They were considered to make inroads into men s right. Why were women the target of witch-hunting? New England was puritan society. From the puritan point of view, women seemed to have a wicked instinct. Also because of their weakness and inferiority, they were considered to align themselves with Satan. In those days, the colonial New England was gendered society which accepted distinction of social standing between male and female. The partriachal power was absolute. So, as a daughter of father and a wife of husband, woman had to live a life that submitted to man. But can it be explained only through puritan beliefs? The colonial society was gendered society and men had made a monopoly of power, wealth. To remain order of puritan community was to remain their interests. Therefore to remain order of community, the puritans had to defend existing gendered system. In the result, women who destroyed order of community became primary target of witch-hunting. Eventually, witch-hunting in the New England was a production of gendered society which tried to remain and strengthen men s vested rights by removing menace to gender system.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 청교도에 대한 위협-앤 허친슨의 사례를 중심으로

Ⅲ. 마을공동체에 대한 위협-세일럼의 사례를 중심으로

Ⅳ. 공동체의 경제체제에 대한 위협 - 뉴잉글랜드 전역에 걸친 재산상속에 관련된 사례

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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