The origin and archetype of university can be found in the University of Paris, University of Bologna, and University of Oxford in Medieval Europe. Nietzsche s critiques of Bourgeois Society was very negative. Nietzsche s nihilism defines the collapse of all existing values which estimated very highly. Especially it criticizes and subverts the universal systems of metaphysics. Nietzsche s concept of nihilism offers us the means of criticizing liberal concept of man. According to Nietzsche, the liberal notion of man depends on the Christian concept of human nature which is based on the metaphysical Christian world view. Therefore, like the Christian concept of human nature the liberal notion of man are metaphysical and abstracted from empirical practices which constitute the subjectivity. Also, While Burckhardt saw the beginnings of modernity in the history of Renaissance Italy, its climax or crisis point was reached during the French Revolution. Here once and for all, the individual was cut off from the past and all restorations were more or less made futile. It was not just that traditional institutions and inherited world views were destroyed. For Burckhardt the crisis ran much deeper. The dynamic but ultimately harmonious relationship between the subject and the object which had characterized Renaissance genius had been destroyed. replaced during the French Revolution by a new stance toward reality, the modern objective Bewußtsein. Nietzsche tries to formulate how can humans be subjects of actions, historically effective and free individuals in this world without any metaphysical grounds. Nietzsche intends that subjectivity developed in historically situated conditions. And this is what the concept of will to power means. This is not what Nietzsche s politics is. but this is the kind of political philosophy one can acquire from the reconstruction of this concept of nihilism. Nietzsche tries to formulate how can humans be subjects of actions, historically effective and free individuals in this world without any metaphysical grounds. Nietzsche intends that subjectivity is developed in historically situated conditions There Jacob Burckhardt and Johann Jacob Bachofen harnesed historical understanding to preserve their threatened city-state culture against the forces of modern change.
Ⅱ. 19세기 스위스의 바젤
Ⅲ. 19세기 바젤대학의 지식인들