The origin and archetype of university can be found in the University of Paris, University of Bologna, and University of Oxford in Medieval Europe. Principles, systems, and structures of those medieval universities were passed down to Berlin University, founded in 1810, which was called the first modem university. The characteristics of European universities were autonomous privileges, which were consistent with their principles, systems, and structures. In contrast, higher education was generally under the governmental control in the regions of Confucian civilization and special religious sects in the regions of Islamic civilization. In Europe university accepted libertas scholastica (scholastic liberty) and developed academic traditions of discourse . European universities have regarded discourse more important than lecture . The tradition of discourse was systematized as seminars. The 17th and 18th centuries heralded the remarkable transition of the medieval tradition of universities. The advent of modem science emerging in the modern civilian society of capitalism marked a new epoch in the image of the scholastic pursuit of learning and knowledge and universities. With the development of modem science, modem civilian society introduced various special subjects, i. e. disciplines. This brought about a new paradigm in higher education and academia. The most important tasks of universities were learning and research of special subjects for professions. The foundation of Berlin University to research Wissenschaft, (special subjects), and University of London (1836) for civic professions, and grandes ecoles after the French Revolution caused the structural revolution in university education for clerics and culture and in the history of learning and knowledge. The core tasks of universities became profession training. Modem civilian society is a society of scientific and logical professions. Meanwhile, it is a society of democracy, namely free discourse. After the advent of modem science in the 17th century, came the era of philosophy in the 18th century. Kant s article, Der Streit der Fakultaten (Disputes Among Departments), written in 1798, declared the department of philosophy as the core department of the university again. His article said that universities were still the community of discourse and culture. In accordance with Kant s idea of university, Wilhelm von Humboldt argued for the concordance between Wissenschaft and Bildung . Bildung durch Wissenschaft was the educational principle of Berlin University. This principle of Berlin University has been well kept at European and American universities even in the highly industrialized society today where universities are affected by strategies of big corporations. The U. C. Berkeley in 1966 argued for a real revival of education in the era of highly specialized science and technology and rapid change of society and economy. It is not, then, what we teach that will give final validity to education at Berkeley, but what we are. In addition, the report focused on the desirable ideal of the university as service of learning to education.