With the beginning of the Cold War, the Truman administration of the United States confronted with the Soviet Union and the Communist in the world. The administration adopted an anti-communist policy, so called, the Containment policy. It was aimed to stop the communist expansion. The successive Eisenhower administration chose the New Look policy as a new anti-communist policy. The new policy was consisted of liberation and retaliation. Liberation means that the U.S. liberates the areas under the Soviet rule; Retaliation means that, upon the Soviet attack, the U.S. retaliates massively with nuclear weapon on the: aggressor. However, the Third World was emerging in the world politics. The U.S. had to pay as much attention to the newly emerging area as it did to Europe. The Kennedy administration embarked in 1961. The administration criticized the military strategy of the former administration. Therefore, the administration adopted the flexible response strategy. It increased a conventional force and organized a special force to battle effectively against the communist guerilla in the Third World. As a way of carrying out this strategy more effectively, the administration thought of a cooperative action with Western European nations. Thus, the Kennedy administration adopted a new policy. In a military and political aspect, the administration planned to force NATO adopt the flexible response strategy and settle military insecurity in Europe through the increase of conventional force. The administration also planned the establishment of the Multilateral Force with the unified command and control of European nuclear weapon. In sum, the Kennedy administration tried to reinforce military and political alliance with Western European nations through NATO. In terms of economy, it sought the ways of common economic prosperity. The U.S. supported the European integration movement, sought an increase on mutual trade through the Kennedy Round, and in doing so, it aimed at achieving prosperity in both sides of the Atlantic. And then, finally, the Kennedy administration hoped that the U.S. and Western European countries would be able to provide assistance to the Third World, that would weaken the relationship between the Third World and the Soviet Union. Such global anti-communist policy was, what we call, the Grand Design policy of the Kennedy administration.
Ⅱ. North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)에 대한 정책 : 유연대응(flexible response) 전략, Multilateral Force(MLF)
Ⅲ. European Economic Community(EEC)에 대한 정책 : 무역확대법(Trade Expansion Act), Kennedy Round