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KCI등재 학술저널

표현의 자유의 현황과 과제

The Status and Tasks of the Freedom of Expression

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2009년 12월 현재 시점에서 우리가 새삼스레 표현의 자유에 대한 논의를 시작하는 것은 이명박 정부 출범 이후 우리사회 민주주의의 성숙도와 인권보 호의 정도가 시대에 역행하는 것이 아닌가 하는 심각한 문제의식이 있기 때문이다. 현재 대한민국의 인권의 현황은 이명박 정부가 정치구호로 사용하는 표현인 잃어버린 10년을 넘어 약 15년 이전의 5, 6공 군사정권의 권위주의 체제에 서의 인권상태로 퇴행하고 있다고 생각된다. 물론 김영삼 정부와 김대중 정부, 노무현 정부를 지나오면서 우리 사회의 인권이 상당부분 개선된 성과가 있어 온 것이 사실이고 현 정부가 이를 계승하고 발전시킨 부분이 없다고 할수는 없지만 큰 틀에서 최근 우리사회의 인권실태는 역사의 수레바퀴를 뒤로 돌리는 듯한 느낌을 떨쳐 버릴 수 없기 때문이다. 민주주의에 대한 역사적 경험을 바탕으로 마련된 시스템에 의해서 인권현실이 개선되어 제도적으로 단계적인 과정을 거쳐 보장되었다기 보다는 여야 간 정권교체를 통한 단기간의 인권개선의 측면도 있었던 한계를 보여주고 있다고도 할 수 있다. 이는 보수세력인 이명박 정부라고 하더라도 그동안 우리사회가 이룩한 민주화의 성과와 인권의 핵심적 가치에 대한 진전은 단순히 좌와 우의 이념대립의 문제가 아니라 세계문명사회의 보편적 가치라는 점에서 쉽게 훼손하거나 무너 뜨리지 못할 것이라는 순진한 기대가 너무도 쉽게 허물어져 버렸기 때문에

At the time of December 2009, the reason why we start to discuss the freedom of expression again is because we have had a critical mind as to whether the maturity of democracy of our society and the extent of the protection of human rights have gone against the current of the times since the beginning of the government led by the president, Lee Myung Bak. Considering the current status of Korea’s human rights, we think that it has already exceeded “the lost ten years” that Lee Administration has used as a political phrase and has gone to the status of human rights that had once been under authoritarian system such as the Fifth and Sixth Republic of Korea about fifteen years ago. Even though the current Administration has improved the status of human rights in our society and has succeeded to the previous Kim Young Sam, Kim Dae Jung and Roh Moo Hyun Goverments developing their merits, we cannot help thinking about this that the current status of human rights in our society seems to spin a wheel of history back to the past. This shows a limitation in that human rights have been improved for a short term through the exchange of political power between the ruling party and the opposition party rather than they have been guaranteed through gradual stages by the system based on historical experiences for democracy. This derives from a desperate recognition of reality because the naive expectation of the Lee Government as a conservative that it would not be damaged or destroyed easily was ruined in that the results improved related to the democratization of our society and the development toward the core values of human rights are not the problem of conflict in terms of ideas of the Left and the Right, but are a universal value of the civilized world. The government controls the press; blocks citizens’ plazas in real space; interrupts the expressions of citizens; monitors and controls citizens offline and online in the whole aspects of life through the expansion of real name system on the Internet and interceptions as well as the introduction of contempt on cyber space, which demonstrate the vestige of non-civilization remaining in our society which can be seen in night-watch countries, and we expect that new statuses examining the maturity and development of democracy will continuously pose many problems in the future. Basically, we have to raise active questions about unconstitutional systems and practices remaining everywhere in our society; find alternatives for them, and so, we expect that a more active decision for the infringement of the Constitution by the Constitutional Court will be made in the future. In order to improve the maturity and human rights of the democracy of our society, we hope that a critical mind for the status and task of the freedom of expression will expand to the field of public opinion and will be reflected on the reformation and legislature. Citizens are getting more disappointed both in cyber space and real one at the attitude of the government that blocks the channels of communication themselves. I, the writer, hope that our society will be a confident democratic society that can assure the freedom of expression with the capability to sublimate it into the energy of our society’s development by embracing and leading these expressions even if they are a faulty and critical mind, not pressing and punishing the expressions and assertions that are somewhat rough and tough from young generations and social movement camps. I am of the opinion that in order to achieve this, we need self-awareness and ceaseless monitoring for political powers, and above all, the government shall use the best effort to maintain frank approaches for smooth communication with citizens, together with a complete change in the mind-set.

1. 2009년 대한민국에서의 표현의 자유 논의에 들어가며

2. 표현의 자유의 의미와 논의의 범위

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