Purpose: To identify the anatomy of the levator aponeurosis (LA) and Whitnall’s ligament (WL) in Korean subjects using cadavers. Methods: Orbital exenteration was performed in ten cadavers (20 eyeballs) that had no history of trauma near the eyeball. We observed characteristics of WL (tension, density, and shape) and the relationship between the superior rectus muscle (SR) and the levator palpebrae superioris. We measured the distance from both the eyelid margin and the upper border of the tarsal plate to the insertion of the LA medially, centrally, and laterally. Results: The WLs we observed showed several shapes. In 12 eyes, we saw clear, white fibrotic bands, while in four others, we found thin, less taut bands. In four eyes, we were unable to identify the precise shape of the band. The insertions of the LA showed nasal dehiscence in 13 eyes and parallel attachment in seven eyes. The distances from the eyelid margin to the insertion of the LA medially, centrally, and laterally were 8.31 mm, 5.57 mm, and 5.15 mm, respectively. The distances from the upper border of the tarsal plate to the insertion of the LA medially, centrally, and laterally were 2.75 mm, 4.82 mm, and 4.29 mm, respectively. Conclusions: This study examined the anatomy of WL and the LA in Korean subjects and may be helpful as a reference in levator muscle surgery. Korean J Ophthalmol 2009;23:183-187 ⓒ 2009 by the Korean Ophthalmological Society.
Materials and Methods