난은 이동표는 송재 이우의 6세손으로 ‘소퇴계’로 불릴 정도로 영남 내에서 학문과 행의로 명성이 높았다. 그의 사환기도 퇴계와 같이 難進易退의 모습을 보여주었다. 이동표가 출사하여 활동하던 시기는 남서간의 극한 대립으로 정국이 일변하던 환국기였다. 이동표는 1683년(숙종 9) 40세의 늦은 나이지만 증광문과에 장원으로 급제하였고, 이미 명망도 있었기에 승문원으로 분관되었다. 그렇지만 송시열의 告廟疏에 연명한 것을 연유로 영의정 김수항이 강력하게 반대하여 이듬해에 권지성균관학유로 실무를 익히게 되었다. 그는 1687년(숙종 13)에 순흥부 창락도 찰방이라는 외직으로 사환을 시작하였지만, 1689년(숙종 15) 기사환국으로 남인이 재집권하면서 首薦으로 성균관 전적에 제수되어 내직으로 복귀하였다. 그 후 홍문관, 사간원, 춘추관 기사관 등의 언관직에 종사하면서 당파를 초월하여 의리론적 입장을 견지하였다. 특히 인현왕후 폐위 반대소, 민정중 처벌 반대, 민장도의 通淸저지, 장희재 집안의 법적 징치 등에서 보여주었던 강직하고, 원론적인 모습은 당시 남인들에게 견제를 받기도 했다. 실제 1692년(숙종 18) 6월 우의정 민암의 아들 민장도의 통청을 거부한 일로 구설이 일어나자 곧 사직한 후 낙향하였다. 그러나 숙종은 이동표를 신임하여 이듬해 6월까지 총 13차례에 걸쳐 사환을 명했지만 그는 모두 사양하였다. 이후 8월 사헌부 집의로 다시 사환 한 후 홍문관 응교, 승지를 거쳐 전라도 관찰사에 내정되었지만 모친 봉양을 이유로 광주목사로 부임하였다. 부임 후 민폐를 혁파하는 등 여러 치적을 남겼으나, 전라도 관찰사와의 불화로 재차 사직 후 낙향하였다. 이후 갑술환국으로 서인이 재집권하면서 그의 정치적 행보는 재평가되어 ‘己巳淸論者’로 인식되었다. 그 결과 1695년(숙종 21) 호조참의에 임명되었으며, 이듬해에는 삼척도호부사로 부임하였다. 부임 당시 자연재해로 인해 유민이 다량 발생하고, 고을이 탕잔된 상태였다. 이에 녹봉을 털어 진휼하고, ‘三陟民瘼疏’를 올려 세금을 탕감 받았다. 이로 인해 부민들이 선정비를 건립하고, 암행어사 鄭澔도 그의 공적을 높게 평가하였다. 이상과 같이 이동표의 의리론적 입장과 지방관으로서의 위민활동은 이후 노론전제하에서도 추증과 시호를 받고, 청백리로 천거되는데 영향을 주었다.
Noneun Lee Dong-pyo was the 6th generation descendent of Songjae Lee Woo and had an esteemed reputation for his scholarship and righteous act in Yeungnam as he was referred to as ‘Little Toegye’. His time as a government official also displayed the appearance of Nanjinitoe (careful when forwarding and quick and prompt when retreating) like Toegye. The period for Lee Dong-pyo to work in the government was the transition period of drastic political upheavals with extreme confrontation of Namin-Seoin. Lee Dong-pyo passed the Jeunggwang Literature Examination as the top of the class at his late age of 40 years old in 1683 (9th year of King Sokjong s reign) and he was assigned as Seungmunwon with his high reputation already established. Nonetheless, on the ground of joint signing on the Song Si-yeol s Gomyoso, Priemier Kim Soo-hyang strenuously opposed to start the practical works as the Gwonji Sunggyungwan Hakyu from the following year. In 1687 (13th year of King Sokjong s reign), he began his government career as an external position of Chalbang of Changrakdo, Sunheungbu, but with Namin taking the power again in 1689 (15th year of King Sokjong s reign) due to Gisahwanguk (a political change made in year of Gisa, Namin taking power over Seoin) he was appointed as the Sunggyungwan Jeonjeok as the Sucheon in a way of returning back to his inner position. Thereafter, as he was engaged in various positions, such as, Hongmungwan Sagwanwon, Chunchugwan, Gisagwan and others, he had maintained his righteous position beyond any political faction. In particular, he displayed his upright and principle-oriented posture as shown in his Statement in Opposition of Dethroning of Inhyeon Wanghu (Queen Inhyeon), opposition to punish Min Jeong-jung, Stoppage of Min Jang-do to appoint as government official, legal device for the Jang Hee-jae family and others, made Namin to keep an eye on him at that time. In fact, he resigned and went down to his home in June 1692 (18th year of King Sokjong s reign) when there was involved with gossip when Min Jang-do, son of the Second Vice Premier Min Am, refused to be appointed as an officer. However, King Sokjong s reign showed the trust of Lee Dong-pyo to order for him to take a government position for a 13 times until June of the following month, but he refused to take any offer. In August, he was appointed as the Jipui for Saheonbu (prosecutor s office) and later appointed as the Jeolla-do Gwanchalsa (governor) after serving Enggyo and Seungji of Hongmungwan, and because of paying tribute for filial duty to his mother, he became the Gwangju Moksa. After he became the position, he had successful accomplishments, by breaking away from harms to the general public and so forth, but he had the disaccord with the Jeolla-do Gwanchalsa that he resigned from the position and came down to his home. Thereafter, Seoin held the power again with the Gasulwanguk (a political change made in year of Gapsul, Soron and Noron taking power over Namin) and his political movement was re-evaluated to be recognized as ‘Gisacheongnonja’. As a result, in 1695 (21st year of King Sokjong s reign) he was appointed as Hojo Chamui and appointed as the Samcheok Dohobusa in the following year. Upon his taking the office, natural disasters caused massive number of floating publics and the budget of the area was completed exhausted. Therefore, he used his salary to helping the public and submitted the, ‘Samcheok Minmakso’ to have the taxes exempted. Because of the foregoing, the residents established his monument of good deed and the secret royal inspector Jeong Ho had high praise for his meritorious deeds. As foregoing, the righteous position of Lee Dong-pyo and the as public service activities a local government officer influenced on granting of posthumous epithet under the entire Noron and nominated as a cheonbaekri (government official with integrity).
Ⅱ. 嶺南과 京南
Ⅲ. 이동표의 宦歷과 인현왕후 폐위에 대한 입장