The purpose of this study is (1) to examine and analyze two main religious factors, Buddhism and Confucianism, historically affecting premodern Korean culture and (2) to evaluate the influence of the two religions on formal and informal premodern Korean elite/higher education in terms of educational administration, To research the study systematically, three research questions are addressed: (1) what are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in the history of Korean culture? (2) how did Buddhism have an effect on Hwarang (Flowers of Youth) and monastic Buddhist schools in the Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla periods? and (3) how did Confucianism affect Seongkyunkwan (National Confucian Academy) and Kwa-keo (national civilian and military service examinations) systems in the Choson era? Through descriptive content analysis, the questions were logically defended as the following: First, the two foreign ideologies adopted as national cults or religions provided political and ethical guidance in premodern Korean history. Next, Buddhism had an effect on the Hwarang and the informal Buddhist institutions doginatically and spiritually. In addition, Confucianism affected both the Seongkyunkwan and the Kwa-keo institutionally and systematically with the collectively - authoritative organizational culture. Finally, Confucian ethical values and Buddhist creeds are essential religious factors to cultivate an individual s virtue and to make a healthy culture in institutional organizations.
1. Identification of the Research Problem
II. Review of Related Literature
III. Research Methodology and Procedures
IV. Religious Factors*
V. Summary and Conclusion