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KCI등재 학술저널

1920-30년대 상하이의 협의서사 흥성 배경

근대시기 동북아해역 인문네트워크와 상하이의 대중문화 (1)

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상하이는 국제도시로 세계의 다양한 지식과 정보가 모이는 곳이었기 때문에 중국 그 어느 도시보다 지식인들이 집결하는 도시로 성장하였다. 상하이의 진보적 지식인은 국제정세 속에서 중국이 처한 상황을 깨닫게 되었고, 서구 열강의 침략에 맞서기 위해 자연스럽게 상무정신을 고취하였다. 많은 지식인은 중국 역사와 민간의 전통 속에서 협객을 발굴하였으며 그들의 상무정신을 찬양하였다. 한편, 상하이는 노동 이주민의 도시였다. 세계대전 후 서구의 자본이 상하이에 몰리게 되면서 국제도시 상하이는 중국 최대의 상공업도시로 성장하게 된다. 이에 상하이에는 다양한 국가, 인종, 지역민이 모여들었다. 이주민들은 그들의 생존과 이익을 위해 업종별, 출신 지역별로 다양한 조직을 결성하였고, 이들 조직은 조직의 결속을 위해 민간의 협의정신을 적극 수용하였다. 결론적으로 근대시기 상하이에는 위로는 상류층 지식인의 엘리트문화에서 아래로는 하층 노동자들의 하위문화에 이르기까지 모두가 협의정신을 찬양하는 문화가 형성되었다. 이는 근대시기 상하이가 지식과 지식인, 자본과 노동자를 끌어들이는 동북아해역의 인문네트워크 중심도시로 성장한 것과 밀접한 관련이 있는 것이었다. 그리고 이것이 1920-30년대 상하이에 협의서사가 흥성하게 된 주요배경이 되었다.

Reflecting both the modern desire as well as traditional values of East Asian cultures, wuxia literatures, or chivalry literatures, have long been loved by many in Northeast Asian region while being branched out into various genres until today. In order to understand and explore how these popular chivalry novels have emerged, spread out, and changed overtime, one must take a macroscopic view of looking into the “Northeast Asian society in modern times”. And in doing so, Shanghai must be at the center of attention as it was the hub of “humanities and cultural network of Northeast Asian waters” during the modern era. Shanghai, during modern times, was an international city, where diverse information from all over the world would flow into. Social and intellectual elites gathered in Shanghai more than any other cities in China. Those intellects, who wanted to learn from new cultures of the Western society rushed into Shanghai, which led to republication of some famous publications from other cities including Illustrated Treaties on the Maritime Kingdoms (海國圖志) and Evolution and Ethics (天演論) in Shanghai. Against such backdrop, many progressive intellects in Shanghai began to realize the situation China was faced with. They naturally immersed into the so called “martialism” or “militaristic spirit”. Many discovered knight-errants or wuxia heros in old Chinese history and civil traditions and admired their spirit. Amidst the invasion by the Western powers, the Chinese intellects of the modern times have chosen to abandon its long tradition of “educating people by literary”, and praised the wuxia heros. Shanghai was also a city of labor immigrants. With the Western capital rushing into Shanghai after the World War, this international city developed into the biggest commercial and industrial city of China, drawing various people of different nationalities, races, and regional background into the city. These immigrants formed many different organizations based on their industrial fields, origins and etc. to survive and uphold their interest. And these organizations proactively and widely accepted wuxia (chivalry) spirit in order to reinforce their solidarity. Amidst the anarchic chaos of Shanghai and fierce competition to survive in such environment, many of these organizations degenerated into criminal organizations. In such process of deterioration, the wuxia spirit was emphasize even more. Wuxia culture become so prevalent in Chinese society that even the leaders of criminal organizations were highly respected as wuxia heros within the lower-class society. In conclusion, the wuxia spirit was highly praised from all spectrums of the society from low-class labor culture to high-class elite cultures in modern Shanghai. This is highly relevant to the development of Shanghai as a hub of Northeast Asian humanities and culture network, drawing knowledge and intellects as well as capital and labors from all over the world. Such cultural and social background laid the foundation for prosperity of wuxia literatures in shanghai during 1920s-1930s.

초록

1. 들어가며

2. 지식인의 도시 상하이와 엘리트 문화 속 상무정신

3. 이주자의 도시 상하이와 하위문화 속 협의정신

4. 맺으며

참고도서

논문초록

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