Based largely on results from preclinical studies, the concept of gut gut-brain interaction has been recognized, mediating bidirectional communication between the gut, its microbiome and the nervous system. Limited data obtained in humans suggests that alterations in these interactions may play a part in several brain gut disorders. Well characterized bidirectional communication channels, involving neural, endocrine and inflammatory mechanisms exist between the gut and the brain. Communication through these channels may be controlled by variations in the permeability of the intestinal wall and the blood brain barrier. Gut-brain interactions are programmed during the first 3 years of life, including the prenatal period, but can be modulated by diet, medications and stress throughout life. Based on correlational studies, alterations in these interactions have been implicated in the regulation of food intake, obesity and in irritable bowel syndrome, even though causality remains to be established. Targets within gut-brain interaction have the potential to become targets for novel drug development for gut dysbiosis-Brain disorders.