근대 국민국가 속 백정의 존재: 『일월』(1964)의 『파계』(1906) 변주를 중심으로
Meaning of ‘Butcher’ in Modern Nation States: How Sunweon Hwang’s 일월 (Sunlight Moonlight) intertextualizes Tōson Shimazaki’s 破戒 (The Broken Commandment)
이 글은 소설가 황순원(1915-2000)의 장편소설 『일월』(1964)을 자연주의 작가 시마자키 도손(1872-1943)의 『파계』(1906)와 비교하여 황순원 텍스트에서 두드러지게 나타난 추방과 소외의 본질을 규명하려 한다. 장편 『일월』이 인간 소외의 문제를 한국 전쟁의 상흔과 겹쳐 확대･심화하였다고 보고, 이를 『파계』와 비교할 것이다. 두 소설은 차별받는 백정 계층을 모티프로 한 현실 반영적 요소를 갖지만, 『일월』은 『파계』의 합리주의적 세계관을 넘어 금기의 세계가 지닌 의미에 도전한다. 이 금기의 문제가 내면의 존재성으로 치환되는 『일월』은 『파계』가 보여준 리얼리즘의 총체성을 해체하여 재창조한다. 이 글은 『일월』이 『파계』를 어떻게 변주하고 있는지를 캐릭터와 서사를 중심으로 분석하여 전후 한국사회에서 추방과 차별이 형상화된 양상을 다루어보고자 한다.
This paper compares the novel 일월 (Sunlight Moonlight, 1964) by Korean novelist Sunweon Hwang (1915-2000) with 破戒 (The Broken Commandment, 1906) by the Japanese naturalist writer Tōson Shimazaki (1872-1943) and identifies the essence of expulsion and alienation, which are prominent in both novels. The two novels focus on the anguish of a main character from the butcher (baekjeong) class and examine how the conflict of the class system still persists in modern society. Hwang describes the issue of exile as a personal internal problem within the large frame of society without much criticism, but Shimazaki decisively criticizes the class-system heritage of the past. The fact that the Japanese main character of The Broken Commandment, who was expelled, leaves for Texas at the end, leads to the realization that the political direction of the Meiji Restoration and the theme of the novel share the same context. Texas is a somewhat orchestrated place to remind readers of the moral lesson of equality, and the reason that the character leaves for Texas is that Japan, which was a status society, was in the process of being modernized by the abolition of the status system, and because of the enlightenment message of the Meiji era that it is important to learn from advanced Western culture. However, in Sunlight Moonlight, the exiles and the aliens do not try to punish the perpetrators or reform the society that drove them out, and the boundary of good and evil between those who exile others and the exiled is also vague. This is because those who exile are also members of a society that is wounded by those who are exiled. In the matter of expulsion, Hwang is trying to heal within the text by excluding social and historical elements and leaning on symbolism. This in turn results in the healing of the lyrical self in the world of poetry, which ultimately leads to the primal question of I, who am myself.”
2. 『일월』,『파계』에 대한 변주: 캐릭터를 중심으로
3. 『일월』,『파계』에 대한 변주: 서사를 중심으로
4. 결론을 대신하여