상세검색
최근 검색어 전체 삭제
다국어입력
즐겨찾기0
150467.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

협동학습 실천에 대한 생태학적 연구

초등학교 교사를 중심으로

  • 343

본 연구는 초등학교 교실 안에서의 협동학습 실천에 대해 생태학적인 관점에서 교사의 의미있는 교육적 시사점을 발견해보기 위한 질적 사례 연구이다. 초등학교 현장에서 협동학습의 전개 및 교실수업에서 이루어지고 있는 협동학습의 운영 실태 및 문제점이 무엇인지 모색하고자 하였다. 연구 방법으로 근거이론을 사용하였으며, 약 9개월에 걸쳐 초등학교 교사 27명의 협동학습 수업 분석과 협동학습 수업 적용과 인식에 대한 관찰 및 면담, 설문지 분석, 문서자료 분석, 협동학습 전문가 인터뷰를 진행하였다. 이러한 과정을 거쳐 ‘협동학습은 쉽지 않다고 느끼는 교사들, 몸이 지친 교사들, 마음이 지친 교사들’ 이라는 인과적 조건으로 인해 ‘타협 방안 모색, 교실환경과 문화, 교사와 학생의 이중적 사고’라는 중심현상을 발견했으며, 현상에 대한 전략에 영향을 주는 맥락적 조건으로 ‘협동학습이 힘든 학생들, 적합하지 않은 교실환경, 변화에 수동적인 교사’가 도출되었다. 교사들의 상호작용 전략에 영향을 주는 중재적 조건에는 ‘협동학습의 효과성과 효율성에 대한 의심, 교육과정과 평가의 재구성’ 범주가 핵심이라고 판단하였다. 이러한 현상과 조건에 취해진 전략으로 ‘새로운 교육정책 제시, 수업 혁신을 위한 연수, 변화된 수업 도전’이 시도되었다. 결과적으로는 ‘우선순위에서 밀려나게 된 수업과 평가 시스템의 개선’을 발견할 수 있었다. 이를 근거로 협동학습 교실실천을 둘러싼 교실생태계 이해를 위한 분석적인 상황모형을 도식화하였다. 협동학습 교실생태계는 직관적으로 확인이 가능하며 협동학습 생태계를 방해하는 요인이기도 한 교실환경, 학교 문화, 수업진행, 효과성과 효율성으로 이루어진 외곽생태계와 동료교사, 정책, 연수, 학생으로 구성된 내곽 생태계로 구성되어 있다. 이러한 내·외곽 생태계 요소들은 협동학습 교실 실천을 서로 상호작용이 일어남을 알 수 있었다. 초등학교 교실에서 협동학습 실천을 위해서는 일부의 몇 가지 요인들로 협동학습 실천을 유인하기 보다는 내곽 생태계와 외곽 생태계에 존재하는 다양한 환경적인 요소들을 복합적으로 고려할 필요가 있다.

This study was performed as the ground theory method how the cooperative learning is implemented in the classroom by the teachers in the ecological perspective. It was intended to find out how the cooperative learning is developed I the elementary school field and to seek the management status of the cooperative learning in the classroom teaching and what is the problem. This study was made through the analysis, application and generation observation of perception of the cooperative learning teaching by 27 teachers in Somang Elementary School and the interview with the research participant, analysis of questionnaire and documentary data and the cooperative learning expert interview, adopting the research tradition and paradigm of the grounded theory for 9 months. The causal condition, which formed the negative perception on the implementation of the cooperative learning in the classroom by the teachers was drawn and they are the teachers who feel that the cooperative learning is not easy. The major phenomenon occurred by this causal condition is that seeking the compromise plan for the realistic cooperative learning and finding the classroom environment and the culture hard to apply it. In the meantime, the students who engaged in the activities happily and feel hard and the teachers who feel the vitality of the teaching but express that it is fatigued are considered as dual thinking. The students who are difficult for cooperative learning, inappropriate classroom environment, and the teachers who are passive for change were drawn as contextual condition that works as restrictive condition in selecting the strategy. In addition to these contextual condition, the doubt on the effectiveness and efficiency of the cooperative learning and curriculum not easy and the reconstruction of evaluation were drawn as a mediating condition having influence on accelerating or suppressing the reaction of teachers and the interaction strategy. The deliberate strategy taken matching with these central phenomenon and mediating condition were to suggest new education policy, to innovate the training system and to challenge to the changed teaching. The results mean the results performed the reaction and interaction strategy taken to cope and solve the central phenomenon facing with it and what appeared in the analysis of this study as the outcome category of the strategy corresponded to the central phenomenon in implementing the cooperative learning in the classroom were the class and innovation of evaluation system, which were pushed out in the priority. Based on the results of this study, the analytic situational model for the understanding the classroom eco-system around the implementation of the cooperative learning in the classroom was schematized. The classroom eco-system of cooperative learning was composed of the classroom environment, school culture, class progress, which are the factor that can be verified intuitively and at the same time, are the factor that obstructs the eco-system of cooperative learning, the outside eco-system made of effectiveness and efficiency and the inside eco-system composed of fellow teacher, policy, training and student. It was observed that these inside and outside eco-system factors also interact each other within each eco-system for the implementation of cooperative learning in the classroom. As a result, to implement the cooperative learning in the elementary school classroom, it was observed that it can survive in the classroom eco-system when considering diverse environmental elements that exist in the inside eco-system and outside eco-system complexly rather than inducing the implementation of cooperative learning with several factors inclined to some parts.

Ⅰ. 서론

Ⅱ. 이론적 배경

Ⅲ. 연구방법

Ⅳ. 연구결과

Ⅴ. 결론

로딩중