평양은 고조선의 계승자임을 자처한 조선에게 ‘단군과 기자의 고장’ 으로 역사적 위상을 지니고 있었으며, 일찍부터 아름다운 경치를 지닌 명승지로 인식되어 왔다. 숙종대 이후에는 사회적 안정과 비약적인 상업발달을 배경으로 번화한 도시적 면모가 강화되고 유흥문화와 예술이 발달하였다. 이러한 제반 지역적 성격은 평양에 대한 당대인들의 관심을 촉발하여 각종 문학작품의 단골배경으로 등장하기도 하였으며 평양의 풍경과 문화를 시각화한 평양성도 제작에 대한 수요증가를 촉진하였다. 평양성도는 조선초기부터 그려졌으나 평양에 대한 관심이 고조된 조선후기에 더욱 성행하였으며 현전하는 작품 대다수도 조선후기 이후의 것들이다. 조선후기에 제작된 행정용 군현지도집에는 평양의 행정구역을 그린 평양부도와 함께 회화성이 강한 별도의 평양성도가 그려진 사례도 발견된다. 감상용 평양성도는 주로 병풍형태로 제작되었는데 조선후기에는 김홍도의 밑그림을 판각한 것으로 전하는 목판화가 병풍형태로 대량 제작, 유통되었다. 평양생도는 이 김홍도 전칭 목판화에서 ‘전형’이 성립된 이후 19세기에는 점차 도식화되는 등 표현기법에서 쇠퇴해 감과 아울러, ‘평안감사 행렬도’를 비롯한 여러 풍속장면이 삽입되기도 하였으며 민화로 제작될 정도로 저변화 되어갔다. 조선말에 이르면 평양성도는 아름다운 경치를 대표하는 하나의 산수 주제로 자리 잡으며 관념산수적 면모를 보이기도 한다.
Pyeongyang(平壤) was perceived in the Korea of the Joseon period as a scenic historical city, whose reputation was reinforced by its association with Dangun(檀君) and Gija(箕子), the two founding fathers of the Korean nation. The commercial boom that occurred in Pyeongyang toward the mid-17th century (reign of King Sukjong), transformed it into a prosperous pre-modem city. Economic prosperity, coupled with the ebbing influence of the traditional patrician class, helped shape a distinctly urban and liberal culture in Pyeongyang, turning its name into a synonym for vibrant nightlife and all scenes. Pyeongyang s female entertainers enjoyed a nationwide reputation of beauty and talent. Meanwhile, as tile door to public service careers was mostly closed to natives of Pyeongyang, due to a long-standing prejudice against northern cities, members of tile city s literati distinguished themselves through poetry and all, rather than through scholarship of Confucian classics. Fine ails found an ideal home in this beautiful and flourishing city as well. The affluence of Pyeongyang and its liberal and artistic mores fascinated people in the rest of the country, and interest in the city hit a particularly high point toward the late Joseon period. The growing demand for images of Pyeongyang was one reflection of the excitement this city generated during this period. Aside from purely cartographic representations, images of Pyeongyang were captured in less diagrammatic and more pictorial forms that were closers to paintings. Collections of administrative maps of counties and towns, published in late Joseon, often included a separate picture providing the overview of the city of Pyeongyang, a privilege denied to other cities and towns. A likely source of influence for this practice is Pyeongyangji(平壤志), a town map collection published by Yun Du-su(尹斗壽) during the early Joseon period which served as a prototype for many other such map collections in ensuing eras. Pyeongyangji contains a map of Pyeongyang, exclusively devoted to the area within the city walls, rich in pictorial details, in addition to standard administrative maps. One of the singularities of the pictorial maps of Pyeongyang in administrative map collections published during the late Joseon period was the insertion of oversized-images of historical monuments and attractions, such as the Tomb of Gija and Bubyeongnu Pavilion, largely disregarding the scale. Meanwhile, folding screens with images of Pyeongyang were also frequently bought and sold in art markets of late Joseon. The folding-screen images of Pyeongyang were most often woodcut prints, which are believed to have been based on original drawings of Kim Hong-do. These woodcut prints, although not entirely free of the diagrammatic style of pictorial maps of Pyeongyang, found in administrative map collections, offer a more detailed depiction of its central districts inside the city walls. Elements of the natural environment such as mountains, rocks and trees, executed in the prevailing landscape painting style of the time, further distance these woodcut prints from cartographic representations. Folding-screen images of Pyeongyang, produced in subsequent eras, lost some of the pictorial quality that originally characterized their predecessors, putatively based on paintings by Kim Hong-do. They became generally more stylized, and some of them even acquired folk painting-like aspects with images of everyday scenes being increasingly inserted in the landscape. All in all, what distinguished images of Pyeongyang that were produced for aesthetic appreciation and visual pleasure, from their cartographic counterparts, was the emphasis on scenic landscapes and the opulent urban lifestyle that developed in this booming commercial city.
Ⅱ. 조선시대 평양의 지역적 성격과 당대인의 인식
Ⅲ. 조선시대 평양성도