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KCI등재 학술저널

익산 쌍릉 출토 유물

목관을 중심으로

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익산 쌍릉은 전라북도 익산시 석왕동 산55~56번지에 위치하고 사적 제87호(1963.1.21.)로 지정되어 있다. 원형의 봉분이 남-북으로 나란히 약180m의 거리를 두고 있으며, 일제강점기인 1917년 12월에 조선총독부에 의해서 조사되었다. 조선총독부는 소왕묘와 대왕묘를 조사하였으며, 두 무덤은 백제 사비시기(A.D. 538~660)의 횡혈식석실로 확인되었고 여러 점의 유물이 출토되었다. 조사 내용은 조선총독부가 1920년 발행한 「大五六年度古蹟調査報告」에 간략한 내용 및 석실구조가 기록되어있다. 또한 국립중앙박물관 소장 유리건판사진으로 출토 유물과 유적이 확인된다. 소왕묘와 대왕묘 출토품이 각각 7건 11점과 7건 7점이며, 정확한 출토지를 알 수 없는 것과 쌍릉 부근에서 출토된 토기편 등이 6건 13점이다. 이 중에서 소왕묘에서 출토된 4건 5점과 대왕묘의 3건 3점이 한국전쟁 당시 망실되어 남아 있지 않다. 대왕묘에서 출토된 유물로는 목관이 있다. 목관은 비교적 보존상태가 양호하여 전체적인 형태와 구조 그리고 각 판재의 결구방법 등을 자세하게 관찰할 수 있다. 목관의 구조는 뚜껑과 상·하·좌·우 측판, 바닥판 모두 6개 통판으로 제작되었으며 관재의 수종은 금송이다. 또한 관고리가 없으며 관뚜껑과 목관 본체의 결합이 독특하고, 언제든지 관뚜껑과 본체를 분리할 수 있는 구조이며, 목관의 앞뒤가 구분되게 제작하였다. 전체적인 형태는 상원하방형이고 금동제 및 동제의 장식품이 부착되어 있다. 금속장식품은 기능에 따라 금동좌금구 2종류와 관못 8종류로 구분된다. 성분 분석결과 이것들은 순동이나 청동에 수은아말감 금도금법을 이용하여 제작한 것이 특징이다. 그리고 목관과 부속금속품의 관찰을 통하여 도금기법, 축조기법, 눌러새기기법, 주조기법, 두부와 신부를 별도로 제작하여 접합한 흔적, 못 구멍 뚫은 기법, 금박도금 경계 흔적 등을 확인하였다. 또한 익산 미륵자지 석탑(서탑) 심주석 상면의 +자 먹선, 사리장엄구 금동제사리외호와 금제사리내호의 집선문, 연판문(∪, ∩) 새김방법과 같은 기법이 대왕묘 목관에서도 동일한 기법으로 처리된 것이 확인되었다. 또한 목관 부재 결합과 금속품 부착 방법을 이용하여 제작공정을 확인하였으며, 이를 바탕으로 제작당시 목관의 모습을 디지털 복원하였다.

The Twin Royal Tombs in Iksan are located at #55~56 San Seokwang-dong, Iksan-si, Jeollabuk-do, and was designated as Historic Site No. 87 (January 21, 1963). Two circular-mound tombs lie side by side from south to north apart about 180 meters from each other. They were first surveyed by the Japanese Government General of Korea in December 1917 during the period of Japanese colonial rule. The Japanese colonial administration investigated both the tomb of the great king and that of the small king and confirmed that they were the tombs of Baekje Sabi period (A.D. 538~660) with the tunnel-type stone chambers. From the two tombs, several pieces of artifacts were excavated. The particulars of the survey including the structure of the stone chambers were summarized in the 「Historical Investigation Report of the Remains in the 6th Year of Japanese King Taishou - 大正六年度古蹟調査報告」published in 1920. The collection of excavated artifacts and remains can also be seen through the glass plate films housed in the National Museum of Korea. The articles unearthed from the tomb of the great king numbered 11 pieces of 7 kinds and those from the small king were 7 pieces of 7 kinds. The number of pottery sherd unearthed from the vicinity of the Twin Royal Tombs and the number of those whose exact excavation site is not known totaled 13 pieces of 6 kinds. Of these, 5 pieces of 4 kinds excavated from the small king and 3 of 3 excavated from the great king have been lost in the Korean War. The relics excavated from the tomb of the great king include a wooden coffin which is relatively so well preserved that its overall shape and structure as well as the way how each plate in it was assembled can be observed in detail. As for the structure, the wooden coffin made of Kotamaysu (Japanese umbrella pine) consists of a lid and a total of six plates attached to top, bottom, left, right and both sides, respectively. There is no ring in the wooden coffin, and its lid and main body are combined in a unique manner. The structure of the coffin allows its lid and main body to be separable from each other at any time and its front and back parts are made distinctively. The overall shape of the coffin is such that its upper part is circular while the under part is flared, with gilt bronze and copper ornaments attached to. The metal ornaments of the coffin may be classified into two types of gilt-bronze knockers in the left side and eight kinds of nails according to their functions. The analysis of the components revealed that they are characterized by the use of mercury amalgam with gold plated to pure copper or bronze. Moreover, the survey of the wooden coffin and metal accessories confirmed that used were such techniques as plating, construction, pressing, casting, and punching, and there are traces of the head and body of the coffin manufactured separately but bonded together, as well as vestiges of gold plating boundary. It was also made clear from the survey that the same technique as used in the remains unearthed from the site of Mireuksa Temple in Iksan was also employed for the wooden coffin in the tomb of the great king. Such techniques include ┼-form chinese ink line found on the upper plane of the deep central stone column in the Stone Pagoda (West Pagoda) of the Mireuksa Temple site, collective pattern of lines as seen in the gilt bronze outer jar as well as in the golden inner jar for sarira reliquary, chasing technique of lotus petal pattern (∪, ∩), etc. The manufacturing process using combination of wooden coffin accessories and metal parts, too, became evident thanks to the survey and put for digitally restoring the original shape of the wooden coffin in the way it was made first.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 대왕묘 출토 목관의 구조와 복원

Ⅲ. 출토유물

Ⅳ. 맺음말

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