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KCI등재 학술저널

The 1587 Edicts of Japan from the Records of Jesuit Missionaries and Accommodative Mission

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Japan encountered with European culture for the first time through Xavier, a Jesuit who arrived in Japan in 1549. Xavier s missionary strategy to accommodate local culture was a top-down approach targeted at elites and developed later to a missionary practice implemented on the condition of Nanban trade upon the request of Japanese rulers. As missionary work progressed according to such strategy, the number of converts increased due to the influence of daimyos or commanders who had converted to Christianity. However, Valignano who was dispatched to Japan in 1579 as an envoy of the Society of Jesus to East Asia grasped the actual situation of missionary work and established an improved missionary strategy, pointing out problems. While succeeding to Xavier s top-down missionary approach targeted at elites politically and socially, he instructed the Church in Japan to perform missionary work targeted at elites mainly in major bases of Christians and to apply a missionary approach targeted at elites with aid from Christian daimyos, rather than continuing indiscreet missionary activities in return for trade, unlike missionary activities at the early stage. He emphasized accommodative missionary practice at cultural aspect, aiming at ordinary believers, rather than concentrating on elite rulers. However, this (Valignano s missionary practice as cultural accommodation) did not mean a fusion with the Japanese or Japanese culture, but meant the recognition of differences between Europe and Japan in cultural nature and the strategy of conduct with regard to how to express favorable impressions to Japanese and how to treat them. In short, Valignano s cultural accommodation was a manner of response as a result of dispassionate perception of differences between two cultures. Meanwhile, we can find that Valignano s political accommodation conflicted with Hideyoshi s two 1587 edicts. Contrary to the Jesuits missionary strategy, Japanese s view on the Society of Jesus changed due to changes in the political landscape of the Warring States Period. As mentioned above, Frois said, he had no chance to break the relationship with the Church because the Church has behaved expeditely, serving him, and has avoid any activity seemingly offensive to his view, keeping ourselves on guard, which means that the Society of Jesus was successful in establishing friendly relationships with Japanese rulers to some extent in the cultural dimension. However, the Society of Jesus was merely a political, religious power similar to Ikko sect in Hideyoshi s plan for national unification and the rule of East Asia. To Hideyoshi, the Society of Jesus was Valignano s religion politically organized like Ikko sect. In other words, the Christian community in Japan was perceived as a militarily threatening religious organization, which possessed powerful armed ships in collusion with Portuguese merchants, and Hideyoshi began to question about the political strength of Christians, who were obedient to foreign clergymen, and felt threat from them. After all, the Society of Jesus failed to establish trustful relationships with rulers such as Hideyoshi and was stranded in the political landscape of Japan. Although accommodative missionary practice of the Society of Jesus in Japan succeeded in the cultural dimension to some extent, it was removed to the outside of the established society of Japan and began to face persecution.

初期イエズス会における海外宣教戦略の一つである適応主義的宣教は、日本においてヴァリニャーノにより本格的に展開していった。ヴァリニャーノの著した「日本諸事要録」で、その特徴が捉えられる。一つは、適応的宣教はヨーロッパと日本の文化の相違を冷静に認識したうえでの結果から始まる。これは文化的適応とも言えるが、ただしヨーロッパ人やその文化が日本人や日本文化に慣れつつ、受容し融合していくのではなく、また外国人の宣教師は日本文化に慣れにくいという現実を認め、異文化との差を詰めようと努力を尽くすのではない。二つの文化の相違から、むしろ外国人やその文化に対し日本人に好感を持たせるためにどのように対応すべきなのかという戦略につながる。つまり適応宣教とは、慣れない異文化に対する安全で友好的な対応姿勢をとる宣教戦略なのである。もう一つは、ザビエルの宣教方針に従って、日本で為政者を中心とする政治的側面からの宣教方針を重要視したが、南蛮貿易を前提にする異教徒の為政者に対する宣教を止揚し、キリシタンの拠点地やキリシタン大名を中心とする宣教への強化を主張している。 ところが、イエズス会はこうした宣教戦略を通じて秀吉という日本最高の権力者との信頼関係を築くことはできなかった。秀吉にとってイエズス会は、一向宗のような政治的に組織化された宗教勢力の一つであり、天下統一の課業として秀吉の権力下に包摂すべき対象に過ぎなかった。九州平定とその後の1587年に日本キリシタンに発した秀吉の二つの禁令は、秀吉の支配下に九州勢力とイエズス会の勢力を屈服させた事件であった。続き、1590年小田原を征伐し天下統一を成し遂げた。 1587年の二つの禁令から、秀吉は一向宗になぞらえてイエズス会を批判していることがわかる。キリシタン勢力は秀吉に友好的な姿勢をとっているが、一向宗のように秀吉の支配体制のなかに独自的な共和国を作っている様子や、キリシタン大名や武将をはじめとする日本人キリシタンの勢力が外国人の宣教師に従順している実態に対し、秀吉は一向宗のようにもう一つの政治的対抗勢力としてイエズス会を弱化させる必要があったと考えられる。

Ⅰ. Introduction

Ⅱ.Accommodative Missionary Efforts by Alessandro Valignano

Ⅲ.National Unification by Hideyoshi and His 1587 Edicts to Ban Christianity

Ⅳ.The Ikko Sect and Weakening Influence of Jesuits