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KCI등재 학술저널

북한의 투자환경과 남북경협 현황 및 정책과제

An Investment Environment of North Korea and Policy Tasks for Inter-Korean Economic Cooperation

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The increased contacts and exchanges between the two Koreas, following the inter-Korean economic cooperation, will greatly contribute to the formation of future inter-Korean economic community, as well as give North Korea a considerable amount of economic benefits meant to resolve current economic difficulties, and to eventually reduce the cost of unification. In spite of those contributions, inter-Korean economic cooperation still has many problems that must be resolved sooner or later. First, a major obstacle was the fact that the inter-Korean economic cooperation had not been institutionalized. The South-North agreement relating to trade and investment, such as investment protection, tax imposition, conflict adjustment or resolution, and payment had not been working yet. This obstacle had been considered a major risk to the South Korean investors, along with political uncertainty caused by the inter-Korean military confrontations. Second, inter-Korean economic cooperation had not been based on long-term economic considerations. In fact, it had been implemented for publicity, focusing on only onetime transactions. Any positive spill-over effects in the North Korean economy, following the inter- Korean economic cooperation, were considerably restricted, since the onetime transactions hardly brought about the feedback linkage. Third, an acute shortage of social overhead capital facilities in North Korea had resulted in profit shortfalls. Most inter-Korean trade had been in cheap primary materials trade or processing-on-commission trade, based on low production costs in North Korea. However, high distribution costs as well as insufficient electricity and fuel following the North s weak social infrastructure, had offset the advantage of North Korean low labor cost, and had impeded further inter-Korean economic cooperation. The imminent tasks of the South Korean government include raising funds required for social infrastructure investment projects in North Korea and consistently implementing the engagement policy toward the North. In particular, to establish the South-North Economic Community, North Korea should work to create a friendly environment for its own change. North Korea s openness and economic reform will grade up the level of the inter-Korean economic cooperation. As mentioned before, the two Koreas will gain much through boosting inter-Korean economic cooperation to their mutual benefit. When South Korea transfers its labor- intensive industries (such as textiles, shoes, and bags) to the North, and use the North Korean skilled labor force, South Korean industries could regain a competitive advantage. At the same time, North Korea can accomplish its economic take-off, taking advantage of foreign investment in the reconstruction of social infrastructure (i.e., power generation facilities, roads, and ports) of the North. In consequence, such a complementary system on the Korean peninsula, will create mutual benefits. Moreover, the economic structures of the two Koreas should be complementarily reorganized to form the South-North Economic Community.

Ⅰ. 최근 북한 경제상황

Ⅱ. 북한의 투자환경과 장애요인

Ⅲ. 남북 합작 사업의 유망 분야

Ⅳ. 최근 남북경협 현황

Ⅴ. 남북경협의 합리적 추진방향

Ⅵ. 남북경협 활성화를 위한 정책과제

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