Effect of meloxicam (cyclooygenase-2 inhibitor) versus vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) as ameliorating agents of progressive doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced nephropathy hampered its antineoplastic efficiency. The objective of the current work is to assess the prospective ameliorating effects of meloxicam versus vitamin D3 (Vit D3, cholecalciferol) against progressive DOX-induced nephropathy in rats trying to ascertain the possible mechanism underlying such amelioration. Ninety Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed to five experimental groups for 3 weeks, with saline, meloxicam (daily), DOX (single dose), Vit D3+DOX, or both meloxicam and DOX. We measured levels of urinary protein, serum creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA) and renal reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression and renal histopathology were assessed. Meloxicam alone treated group revealed no significant difference in urinary protein and serum creatinine. It also presented non-significant reduction in the MDA content while an increase in the reduced GSH content in contrast to the control group, which is more evident after the first week. Renal sections of rats received meloxicam only showed no significant histological changes and negative immunoreactivity compared to the control group. DOX induced a significant increase in urinary protein, serum creatinine, decrease reduced GSH, increased renal MDA and disrupted renal morphometric parameters and histology with increased TNF-α expression. Combination groups of Vit D3+DOX and meloxicam+DOX showed improvement of all DOX disturbed parameters. Meloxicam showed better results most likely due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities superimposing the immune-modulatory effect of Vit D3. So, it is recommended to use meloxicam in patients receiving DOX as a renoprotective agent in addition to its analgesic effects required by cancer patients.
Materials and Methods
Conflicts of Interest