This study aims to analyze Canada’s legal and institutional basis of counter-terrorism activities, response agen-cies and systems and its national policy framework for terrorism in order to find political implications that can be applied to South Korea. This study revealed that Canada has recently granted top-level information gathering authority to counter-terrorism organizations, such as the CSIS and the RCMP, based on the 『Anti-terrorism Act, 2015』 and other relevant laws on terrorism. In fact, the CSIS serves the role of the Integrated Terrorism Assessment Center(ITAC) of Canada by focusing most of the organization s capabilities on collecting intelligence information on domestic and international terrorism. In addition, through the Government Security Screening Program, the CSIS has im-plemented strict human security checks and strengthened security screening on the US border, as well as radically blocking terrorists’ financial flow into Canada by working in conjunction with the Canada Revenue Agency. In parallel, the RCMP has expanded its National Security Criminal Investigations Program to focus on collecting evidences and investigating terrorists, making significant effort to strengthen investigative capacity towards sus-pected support for terrorist financing. Therefore, through such examples of Canada, the following measures can be considered for South Korea: First, in order to strengthen the capabilities of the National Police Agency, which is in charge of collecting information on domestic terrorism, the authority to collect information on terrorist suspects currently granted only to the head of the National Intelligence Service in accordance with the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 must be also granted to the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Moreover, the “Counter-Terrorism Division” under the National Police Agency s Security Bureau should be reorganized into the Counterterrorism Office/Counterterrorism Information Center directly under the Com-missioner of the National Police Agency. Second, Article 9 of the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 needs to be amended to strengthen the information gathering capabilities of the National Intelligence Service and the National Police Agency while enabling strict legal control over various information collection activities. This will ensure that information gathering activities for terrorist suspects can be strictly conducted under the principle of warrant. Third, counter-terrorism agencies, such as the National Intelligence Service and the National Police Agency, must establish an uncomplicated inter-country cooperation system with the United States, Interpol and other foreign bodies, while actively participating in the activities of international organizations related to terrorism, including Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering(FATF), to improve the capability to collect infor-mation and respond to terrorism. Fourth, South Korea s investigative agencies should cooperate with foreign authorities to promote the ex-change of investigative information and data on new aspects and methods of terrorism. In addition, effective investigation, prosecution and punishment for terrorists should be in place by strengthening the capabilities for initial investigation, such as prompt on-site dispatch and on-site investigation, in the event of terrorism and en-hancing scientific investigation capabilities for illegal funds, explosives, drugs, and weapons related to terrorism.
2. Legal Basis and Content of Canada s Counter-Terrorism Policy
3. Canada s Key Counter-Terrorism Agencies and Recent Policy Trends
4. Conclusion and Implications