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KCI등재 학술저널

일본 황조(皇祖) 신화와 의례의 관계

『고어습유(古語拾遺)』를 중심으로

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本論文は代々中臣氏と並んで大和朝廷の祭祀を司っていた斎部氏の広成が807年に編纂した『古語拾遺』を中心に国家の統治イデオロギーや制度の変化などの政治的·社会的な要因により神話や儀禮が影響され、変容していく様相を考察した。古代中央集権的な国家体制の確立と王権の強化を目的に日本の神話は皇祖神アマテラスを中心に再編され、天神地祇への儀礼や祭式も国家の統制下に整えられてきた。しかし、絶対視されていた皇祖神への儀礼も時代と共に微妙に変化し、律令制が形骸化した平安時代以降は伊勢神宮の祭祀にも変化が生じる。『古語拾遺』の中で広成は大化の改新以降、同族藤原氏の支援のもと勢力を拡大し神祇官における地位を伸張させてきた中臣氏の祭祀権の独占を批判する一方、神代から活躍した神祇氏族の衰退や伝統の揺れを嘆く。その批判の根拠を神代の伝承、つまり神話そのものから求めているという点で『古語拾遺』は神話と儀禮との関係を明瞭に示している。

This paper examines how myths and rituals are influenced and transformed by political and social factors such as governmental ideology and institutional changes, based on Kogosyuui compiled by Inbeno Hironariga in 807 in the Heian period. For the purpose of establishing an ancient centralized state system and strengthening the kingship, the Japanese mythology reorganized around Amaterasu, the ancestral god of the emperor and the rituals and ceremonies for the gods of heaven and the gods of the earth are also established under the control of the imperial family. During the process, the Inbe clan, who was in charge of the Yamato court rites equally with the Nakatomi clan from generation to generation, criticized the monopoly of the national sacrifice by the Nakatomi clan, which had increased political influence after the Taika reform. In particular, raising the question that the role of making an offering to Ise Shrine (Isejingu) was originally in charge of the Inbe clan, based on the myth of Nihonsyoki, shows the close relationship between the myths and rituals. In other words, Kogosyuui shows well that rituals give life to myths by acting as a visual representation of the myth and myths are often rewritten to explain and justify the present rituals.

1. 머리말

2. 『고어습유(古語拾遺)』의 구성과 성립 배경

3. 『고어습유』 11개조와 의례

4. 맺음말

참고문헌

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