Purpose: The study was conducted on 30 6th grade(13 years old) students from S elementary school in D met-ropolitan city in Korea to verify the effects of ‘barefoot rhythm training’, which combines barefoot and rhythmic exercises, on the body composition and abdominal circumference of obese male elementary school students who have a body mass index of 26kg/m² or higher by performing rhythm training after equally dividing them into barefoot and shoe-wearing groups. Method: Exercise treatment composed of 5 minutes of warm-up and cool-down exercises and 20 minutes of main exercise was given 4 times a week with targeted RPE of 9-10 for 1-4 weeks, 11-12 for 5-8 weeks, and 13-14 for 9-12 weeks. A corresponding sample t-test was performed to compare the changes before and after 12 weeks of exercise treatment. Results: As a result of the study, it was found that the body mass index, body fat mass, and body fat percent-age of the variables of body composition were found to be decreased more in the barefoot group compared to the shoe-wearing group, while the skeletal muscle mass and lean mass were increased more in the barefoot group compared to the shoe-wearing group. Similarly, the abdominal circumference of barefoot group showed a greater reduction compared to the shoe-wearing group. Conclusion: In conclusion, since barefoot rhythm training has a higher exercise efficiency compared to the shoe-wearing rhythm training done in the same intensity and pattern, it has a greater positive effect on the body composition and abdominal circumference, which affect the obesity and metabolic diseases of elementary school students in health crisis.