아라가야의 순장은 함안 도항리고분군의 5세기 3/4분기~6세기 1/4분기 대형 및 중대형의 수혈식석곽묘에서만 확인되고 있으며, 현재까지의 보고에 의하면 9기 정도의 순장묘가 확인된 것으로 알려져 있다. 고대사회에 있어 순장의 존재와 양상은 사회발전단계를 이해하고 설명하는데 중요한 자료로 활용되고 있는 만큼 아라가야의 순장 역시 여러 연구자에 의해 다양한 견해가 제시되어 왔다. 하지만 연구방법의 미확립으로 인하여 동일 순장묘의 순장양상에 대한 해석이 불일치한 상황이며, 이로 인하여 아라가야 순장의 시간적인 변화나 계층적 비교, 더 나아가 순장을 통한 지배계층구조의 규명 등 심화연구는 거의 이루어지지 못한 실정이다. 본고는 아라가야 순장의 본격적 연구를 위한 방법론적 틀 마련을 목적한 연구이다. 이를 위해 도항리고분군의 대형 순장묘를 대상으로 한 기존의 보고나 연구를 검토하여 다양한 문제점들을 제시하고, 순장자의 인골(매장자세), 착장유물, 공지 등의 고고학적 요소를 활용하여 대형 순장묘의 순장양상에 대한 해석적 대안을 제시하였다. 이를 통하여 아라가야 순장의 채용 시점과 도입 과정, 대형 순장묘의 순장유형과 전개양상, 주피장자와 순장자의 사회적 성격 등을 살펴보았다.
Dohang-ri tombs in Ham-an are the central tombs of Ara-Gaya. The tombs were excavated by Changwon National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage after 1990s. The evident clue to the sacrificial burial was confirmed from the large size stone lined tomb with vertical digging style which dated from the late 5th century to the early 6th century through the excavation. Now, the sacrificial burial in Ara-Gaya region is only confirmed in Dohang-ri tombs. This shows various changes and differences in class over time. This study is to provide a methodological structure for full-scale research of sacrificial burial of Ara-Gaya. The subject of this study is large size tombs, No. 4, 6, 8, 34 among sacrificial burial tombs of Dohang-ri tombs. The original state of the sacrificial burial was restored by using the dead s bones who buried alive, artifacts belonging to the dead, and the empty space in stone chamber. The progress of this study goes as follows. First, the examination of the present reports and studies related to the large size sacrificial burial tomb in Dohang-ri tombs suggested a diversity of problems. Then, an alternative opinion was suggested based on analysis on size of the dead who buried alive, position of burial, location of burial, and so on. The content of the study came through this process is as follows. The sacrificial burial of Dohang-ri tombs appeared along with archaeological phenomena, such as the construction of high and large burial mounds in the third quarter of the 5th century, the construction of large size stone lined tomb with vertical digging style, and an increase in quantity and quality of burial goods. Having considered this, the first appearance of the sacrificial burial of Ara-Gaya occurred as a phenomenon upon the introduction of idea of sacrificial burial through sustaining interaction with Geumgwan-Gaya after the 4th century, the establishment of the political power structure in the third quarter of the 5th century, and the process of social acceptance. The sacrificial burial in this period is a type having the five deads who buried alive lied at right angles to the bottom area of the main body s feet. The burial position continued until the forth quarter of the 5th century without a significant change. The size of the sacrificial burial decreased from five people to two and the position of the dead who buried alive changed from right angle to parallel upon the first quarter of the 6th century. This is thought to be a phenomenon which shows an aspect of decline and extinction of the sacrificial burial. The change could be caused by the introduction of Buddhism, but it can not be assured that this is true just with the present data. However, since the same aspect is confirmed from a small size sacrificial burial in the same time, it is evident that sacrificial burial declined with a change of social concept from this point. Later, in the second quarter of the 6th century stone lined tomb with vertical digging style changed to stone chamber tomb with horizontal entrance style and no more sacrificial burial has been confirmed after this period in Dohang-ri tombs of Ara-Gaya. On the other hand, the main body of the large size sacrificial burial of Dohang-ri is the ruling class including the top ruler (king) and it can be known that the people who buried alive are servants who served the main buried body. Especially, in the case of the people who buried alive as an attendant on the death of their lord, it could be learned that their characteristic of social status was classified according to the form of wearing personal ornament and the burial location in the chamber. From now on, I try to study on sacrificial burial of the highest class as well as that of the second highest class based on this late study. The study will be in progress as conducting a research focused on changes of sacrificial burial over time and differences in class.
Ⅱ. 아라가야 대형 순장묘에 관한 분석
Ⅲ. 아라가야 최고지배자의 분묘와 순장