Purpose: This study analyzed the effects of a Fitness Program, which combines anaerobic and aerobic exercises applied for 12 weeks, on changes in physical fitness, metabolic risk factors, and cognitive function of elderly women aged 65 or older. Method: 20 elderly women aged 65 or older were recruited as the subjects of the study and assigned into 2 groups: the Control Group and the Fitness Program Group, which carried out the exercise. The Fitness Program Group carried out exercises the full-body resistance exercise using a weight machine for the upper and lower extremities, working on from large to small muscles under the supervision of a professional sports instructor, four times a week for 12 weeks. After the resistance exercises were carried out, walking was performed for 30 minutes on a treadmill without slope at a speed of 5.4(km/h). The intensity of the exercise was reset by measuring the RM (repetition maximum) every three weeks. Results: The Fitness Program Group showed a decrease in weight, body fat, and body mass index compared to the Control Group. The Fitness Program Group showed an increase in muscle mass and displayed interactional effects between the group and repeated measurements(p<0.05). In terms of cognitive function, the Fitness Pro-gram Group showed an increase in memory over the Control Group, and both groups showed an increase in treatment at neural reaction speed and displayed statistically significant(p<.05) interactional effects. Both groups showed positive increases in simple and selective reaction times(p<.05). Conclusion: It could be confirmed that systematic and regular exercise in old age has a positive effect on body composition and physical fitness. It is predicted that the nerve reaction time, especially in cognitive function fac-tors, has been improved by nerve stimulation. It would be meaningful if future studies compare various aspects of the study subjects, analyze physical fitness factors related to aging, and evaluate cognitive function factors for the prevention of dementia.
2. Research Methods