Prostate cancer is one of the high incidences and the most invasive cancer that is also highly resistant to chemotherapy. Currently, several natural products have been considering using as the supplements for anti-cancer therapy. This study aims to identify the potential active anti-cancer ingredients in the bran extracts of the native Thai rice (Luempua cultivar). Rice bran fraction enriched in anthocyanins was successively isolated and processed until the major purified compound obtained. The sub-fractions and the purified, rice bran, cyanidin 3-glucoside (RBC3G), were studied for biological effects (cell viability, migration, and invasion assays) on human prostatic cancer (PC3) cells using immunohistochemical-staining and immuno-blotting approaches. The sub-fractions and the purified RBC3G inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics of PC3 cells by blocking the expression of several cytoskeletal associate proteins in a concentration dependent manner, leading to decreasing of the cancer cell motility. RBC3G reduced the expression of Smad/Snail signaling molecules but enhanced the expression of cell surface protein, E-cadherin, leading to a delay tumor transformation. The RBC3G also inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-9 and nuclear factor-kappa B expression levels and the enzymes activity in PC3 cells, leading to a slow cell migration/invasion process. The results suggested that RBC3G blunt and/ or delay the progressive cancer cell behaviors by inhibit EMT through Smad signaling pathway(s) mediating Snail/E-cadherin expression.
Materials and Methods
Conflicts of Interest