Nerve entrapment and blood circulation impairment associated with the medial side of the ankle are not uncommon. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical basis of neurovascular structures of the medial ankle which comprised the number, origin, branching pattern, and branching point. Forty feet of fresh cadavers were examined by using 2 reference lines: the malleolar-calcaneal (MC) and navicular-calcaneal (NC) axes. We recorded number, origin, length of the 2 axes, the locations and widths of neurovascular structures on MC and NC axes, the branching point of neurovascular structures, and the branching pattern of neurovascular structures was recorded and was separated into 5 types. The posterior tibial nerve (PTN) bifurcated to plantar and calcaneal nerves and branched proximally to the tarsal tunnel (TT). The posterior tibial artery bifurcated to plantar and calcaneal arteries and branched inferiorly to PTN and within the TT. The calcaneal nerves and arteries had more variation of number and origin. The most common branching point of calcaneal nerves and arteries is within the TT, except the medial calcaneal nerve. It branched proximally to the TT. The anatomical knowledge from this study is important for the diagnosis and treatment of clinicians.
Materials and Methods
Conflicts of Interest