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KCI등재 학술저널

해방 직후 재일조선인과 암시장

1945~1950년 암시장 가쓰기야(担ぎ屋)를 중심으로

Defeated in World War II, the war-oriented Japan’s industries also collapsed and lead to mass unemployment. The Koreans in Japan who mainly worked in those industries confronted an overall unemployment and they desperately looked for a means of living. Under this condition, the Black Markets sprout and Koreans were engaged in with no choice. The experience of the Black Markets had provided the development of Zainichi business in particular area. Above all, YAKINIKU(Korean style barbecue) and PACHINKO(slot machine) were definitely derived from the Black Markets. On the other hand, some specific manufacturing such as rubber, textile, metal and machinery, plastic business also deeply involved with the Black Markets and the relevance has been continued up to the present. KATSUGIYA, which is an individual delivery business, is the bottom layer of the Black Markets. It required no experience and with small amount of capital or supplies therefore people could set out immediately. KATSUGIYA visited rural area and bartered food and general merchandise. They delivered the goods to the Black Markets in the cities. It hardly could be a decent and profitable job with small commissions, however, Koreans who couldn’t get into the real job market and no way to survive attached to the lowest part of the Black Markets as KATSUGIYA. Under the controlled economics, rice and food were great demand in the Black Markets and KATSUGIYA carried the supplies to run all the risks. Meanwhile, bootlegs and traditional candy made by the Koreans also sought by the Japanese consumers and it grew popular in the markets. However, it provided a reason to Japanese government to conduct a raid to the Korean village later. The Black Markets are the stage of fierce survival for both of the Japanese and the Koreans and became one of the political arguments. Among the Korean KATSUGIYA, some people could make a great capital from the job and get a chance to transfer other profitable business. Some of them opened YAKINIKU restaurants which represent the characteristics of Korean culinary tradition and some others made an investment in PACHINKO. Since Koreans were excluded from job market by implication after Japan regained sovereignty, they tended to be more concentrated on such occupations. Besides, specific manufacturing, service sectors, realty, private loan business which Japanese wouldn’t willingly accept also became the great parts of Zainichi business. After all, this paper underlined that the role of KATSUGIYA which explains the present characteristics of the Zainichi business largely originated from the Black Markets after liberation. The history of the Koreans in the Black Markets could be an index how Zainichi business will transform and affect in time to come.

1. 머리말

2. 해방 이후 경제상황과 암시 유입 요인

3. 가쓰기야의 활동실태

4. 주요 취급물자

5. 단속과 치안문제

6. 맺음말

참고문헌

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