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KCI등재 학술저널

한국근대화와 自助精神

남한의 새마을정신과 북한 자력갱생론의 연원

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The purpose of this paper is to study the origin of ‘self-help’, the ideology of The Saemaul Movement(새마을運動) in South Korea in the 1970’s and Self-reliance Campaign in North Korea since the late 1950s. Specifically, I try to relate the ideology of ‘self-help’ with the discourse on ‘self-help’(自力更生論) of colonial Korea in the 1930’s. After the World WarⅡ, Korea was divided into South Korea and North Korea in 1948. Even though each country has had different ideologies as a system of government, a ruling ideology of Park Jung-hee(朴正熙, 1917∼1979) in the 1970’s was similar to that of Kim Il-sung(金日成, 1912∼1994) in the late 1950s. It is important that both of Korea used the ideology was related with the legacy of colonial Korea in the 1930’s. Because We could founded the origin of ‘self-help’ ideology in colonial Korea in the 1930’s. ‘Self-help’, a sprit of The Saemaul Movement in South Korea in the 1970’s, was affected by a personal experience of Park Jung-hee in the colonial Korea, 1937~1945. Park Jung-hee, a teacher at the Mungyeong(聞慶) elementary school, played a major role in The Rural Revitalization Campaign(農村振興運動) which is a rural development campaign of colonial Korea in the 1930’s. His experience of that time was represented with The Saemaul Movement as a kind of rural development campaign in South Korea in the 1970’s. It is important that self-help, the ideology of The Saemaul Movement, was same as that of colonial Korea in the 1930’s. ‘Self-help’, as a ruling ideology of North Korea since the late 1950’s, was also affected by a personal experience of Kim IL-sung in Manchuria(滿洲) in the 1930’s. In fact, the discourse on ‘Self-help’ in North Korea since the late 1950s was affected by Maoism(毛澤東主義) in The Chinese Communist Party. The majority of Korean communists worked with the Chinese Communist Party in North China and Manchuria in the 1930’s. Kim IL-sung, a member of the Chinese Communist Party, resisted Japanese imperialism. In conclusion, it is originated from ‘self-help’ of colonial Korea in the 1930’s that ideology of The Saemaul Movement in South Korea in the 1970’s and Self-reliance Campaign in North Korea since the late 1950’s. I found out that ‘Self-help’, a national ideology of both Korea in modernization was the continuity of a ruling ideology of Japanese imperialism in the 1930’s.

1. 머리말

2. 1930년대 관제 이데올로기로서 ‘자조’

3. 남북한의 관제운동과 ‘자조’

4. 맺음말

참고문헌

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