일제 강점 말기 조선주둔일본군의 조선인 포로감시원 동원과 연합군 포로수용소 운영
The Mobilization of Korean POW Guards and the Operation of POW Camps for Allied Troops, Committed by Japanese Forces Stationed in Korea during the Late Colonial Period
The Japanese colonial government placed prisoner-of-war (POW) camps in Gyeongseong(京城), Inchon(仁川) and Heungnam(興南) in Korea. The Japanese army captured British, American, Australian and Dutch soldiers, about 120,000 in all, during the Second World War, and interned them POW camps placed not only in Southeast Asian countries but in its own country, Taiwan, China and Korea. It mobilized warders from among Koreans and Taiwanese. Approximately 3,200 Koreans were mobilized to guard captives, about 3,000 of whom were assigned to camps in Southeast Asian countries. The others, about 200, were assigned to camps in Korea. POW camps in Korea were governed by Noguchi(野口), commander of the training battalion for civilians attached to the Japanese military, together with officers dispatched to Korea. They interned 998 Caucasian captives transferred from Singapore with intent to propagate the colonialist ideology all over Korea. In Korea in those days, there were a total of 3 POW camps including a branch camp placed in 1943 in Heungnam. The main points of POW camps in Korea may be summarized as in the following: First, they can be regarded as a means of colonization. Second, they were placed in the noncombat zone for the purpose of overseas publicity. Lastly, Korean POW Guards were also the victims of compulsory mobilization. The allied prisoners were mostly forced to do hard labor. In Gyeongseong, they did odd jobs around the Japanese Army Headquarters in Korea or carried its packages. In the Inchon branch, they were mobilized for constructions around the harbor and factories. In Heungnam, they served in a Japanese plant producing nitrogenous fertilizer(日本窒素肥料). With time, meanwhile, changes occurred in the number and nationalities of allied soldiers captured by the Japanese army. When they arrived in Busan, Korea, British soldiers accounted for the highest percentage, and there were a small number of Australian soldiers. American soldiers captured in Japan, in the meantime, were transferred to Korea in April, 1945, and captive soldiers in Korea were transferred to Manchurian areas including Fengtian(present, Shenyang). When captive soldiers were released, about 690 remained in POW camps in Korea. It is presumed that Korean POW Guards were discharged with the end of the war. However, not much is known about their exact number and whereabouts. In this study, the list of 91 warders was found in ‘The Guard List’ made by the Japanese army, which is highly significant in that it first gave a clue to the exact state of Korean POW Guards who served in POW camps in Korea.
2. 조선인 포로감시원 동원과 수용소 배치
3. 조선포로수용소 설치와 연합군 포로 수용 실태
4. 조선포로수용소 내 포로감시원의 동원 실태와 해방 과정