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KCI등재 학술저널

한국전쟁기 주한 미국공보원의 선전 활동

인쇄매체를 중심으로

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Propaganda activities of U.S.I.S. was massive in its scope and range as it systematically proceeded in the midst of the battles. In the beginning of the war, it was focused on the consolidation psychological warfare. Government officers, soldiers, and citizens were persuaded to accept policies on Korea, and warfare policies of U.S. government. Among the media used by U.S.I.S., the print materials were the most general and effective propaganda tools. With the onset of the War, what suddenly occupied a high priority among the print media activities of U.S.I.S. was the provision of various news resources such as Sisa Tongbo that translated the summaries of the contents in Wireless Bulletin from the Department of State. News related activities of governmental institutions including Korea’s newspaper companies were virtually suspended, making news resources of U.S.I.S. as the main source of information. Furthermore, it was subjected to the censorship from neither the Korean Army nor the Korean government, and thus, was allowed to gain more trust compared to Korean newspapers and government announcements. Particularly, news resources greatly contributed in carrying out psychological warfare of U.S.I.S. in sudden overturns during the War. However, the significance of its provision of news resources dwindled as Korean media restored its original function. Instead, the method of making direct contacts with those taking the lead in forming public opinion such as newspaper editors was more emphasized. The print media activities of U.S.I.S. was not confined to the supplying of news resources since the War broke out unexpectedly and the progress of it was dramatic. U.S.I.S. published various periodical and non-periodical news media in en masse to distribute to the Korean populations. One sheet leaflet was made in abundance and scattered especially during the several months after the War, when the psychological warfare of U.S. Army was not fully prepared. Moreover, the Weekly World News, the one and only news media that managed to remain among those which had published before the war, continued to produce not only to distribute to the Koreans, but also to use as educating materials for communist prisoners of war. Timeliness was essential in published print materials for special occasions and thus, were quick in reflecting U.S. government policies related to the warfare. Though, there were cases where simple information or educational writings that were weak in their propaganda character were included. The network of distribution was fairly wide as news media and print materials were delivered to rural areas by mobile unit cars or administrative institutions, and consequently, the propaganda influence was big enough. With the commence of truce talks and fixed situations in the front, U.S.I.S. extended its sphere of interest to book translations and publication aid. The purpose of the activities was to strengthen Korean’s anticommunism consciousness and transfer information and knowledge about America. Rather than just giving out imported U.S. books, it provided translated versions. The translated books ranged from children’s ones to literature and practical how-to-books, but the priority was in the books criticizing communism or introducing American history, figures, and culture. U.S.I.S. assisted Korean publication area with the supply of paper rolls and helped minority publish companies’ finance by buying stocks. Without a doubt, this cannot be seen as a purely good intention since the companies were selected in accordance to the propaganda purposes of U.S.IS. The fundamental essence of its publication aid can be easily detected in issuing or assisting of anticommunism books. State Department and U.S.I.S. supported writers who had experienced communism by himself, particularly North Korean refuges writing about the experience of rules under communism.

1. 머리말

2. 뉴스자료의 제공

3. 뉴스매체와 각종 인쇄물의 발행

4. 도서번역과 출판지원

5. 맺음말

참고문헌

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