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KCI등재 학술저널

재일 한인의 민족해방운동과 3·1운동 기념

1910년대~1930년대를 중심으로

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In this paper, I researched how Koreans in Japan celebrated the March First Movement as a part of their national liberation movement, mainly in the 1920s and 1930s. Until the early 1920s, nationalist movement by Korean students positively inherited the February 8th Independence Declaration, 1919, and the March First so Koreans actively fought to celebrate March First. In 1921, when the Washington Conference was held, they even tried to express their will to achieve Korean national independence by reliving the February 8th Independence Declaration. Since the mid 1920s, while Korean population rapidly increased in Japan, the leaders of celebrating March First were social movement organizations including trade unions, representing the fact that most Koreans living in Japan were laborers. They held the less than large ritual rallies in many cities in spite of severe suppression by Japanese police forces, especially break-ups and arrests of leaders. During the late 1920s, it was the Federation of Korean Laborers Union in Japan, the most prominent Korean organization that lead the March First celebration movement in order to call attention of Koreans living in each regions. However, as their organizing power decreased because of continuous crackdowns, the Korean Laborers Union in Japan could not help but be cancelled. Korean unions were affiliated into the National Council of Japanese Labor Union, the left wing trade union. The cancellation and merge also aimed to strengthen labor movement in Japan within the frame of ‘one union in one industry.’ Therefore, it was Korean activists working in the Japanese left wing unions that continued the March First celebration struggle in the 1930s, while fascism widened in the Japanese society. They intended to heighten the national consciousness of Korean laborers in the locality and to activate the laborers’ organizations such as trade unions. In conclusion, the March First celebration movement was carried away as means of the national liberation movement. The leading forces and means of struggle changed from the 1920s to the 1930s, according to the situation. However, the persistent celebration movement played a role of enlightening Koreans with nationalism and promoting their national and social movements. During the war, Koreans could not maintain the tradition of celebrating March First under the extreme fascist system. Although they resumed it after the liberation, there were also ideological struggles among Koreans, based on the cold war.

1. 머리말

2. 3·1운동을 계승한 재일 한인학생의 운동

3. 재일 한인에 의한 사회운동 전개와 3·1운동 기념

4. 일본 혁신운동 내에서 전개된 3·1기념일운동-1930년대

5. 맺음말

참고문헌

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