During the period of Kabo Reform, a new political and social system to make Joseon Dynasty modernized was introduced. An official appointment system was reformed, and a modern education system(新學制) was introduced as well. Due to the Kabo reform, traditional education system faced momentous change. It also brought change to the phase of Sung-gyun-gwan(成均館). Sung-gyun-gwan, the highest national school in Joseon, became a target of reform. After reform, Sung-gyun-gwan became a bureau within the ministry of education (學務衙門). Even though its position was degraded, its previous functions and roles remained, such as sacrificial rite(祭享) and the lectures of Confucian studies(講學). Reformers didn’t intend to reform radically a previous system of Sungyun-gwan until a new educational system was consolidated. Because a radical change would brought about complaints from confucian. As the coalition cabinet of Kim Hong Jib(金弘集) and Park Young Hyo(朴泳孝) launched, reform accelerated. When a variety of new-typed schools were established, delayed measures in relation to educational system commenced. As a result, Sung-gyun-gwan was excluded in the process of reorganization of government office. With its meaning lost in Joseon Dynasty, Sung-gyun-gwan was degraded to the status of a confucian shrine, which just took charge of a confucianal rite. The triple intervention caused the change of domestic and foreign circumstances of Joseon. In the middle of this atmosphere, rather than abolition of Sung-gyun-gwan, the opinion of restoring it into a new education system was gathering strength. Through the distribution of rules and regulations of Sung-gyun-gwan, it could restore its function as confucianal shrine and educational institution. Sung-gyun-gwan which recovered its educational functions essentially was required to educate not only the understanding of the scripture but practical subjects. Therefore, it had a similar curriculum and evaluation methods as other modern educational institutions had. In short, Sung-gyun-gwan appeared as a specialized institution based on confucianism. In spited of these changes, it was more essential to understand practical education in society. However, the graduates of Sung-gyun-gwan were not superior to those of other institutions because the students of Sung-gyun-gwan had to learn confucianism and practical education at the same time. After all, the social position of the Sung-gyun-gwan was unstable. After the King Gojong’s return to the royal palace from Russian Legation, the government attempted to establish an independent sovereignty of the country. While the reform which attempted to establish the mighty authority of the King, Confucianism appeared as a new national ideology once more. Sung-gyun-gwan was raised as a symbolical center of confucianism. The efforts which intended to emerge Sung-gyun-gwan into the modern educational system faced conversion. Through the amendment of regulations, Sung-gyun-gwan reinforced its traditional character, and the guarantees for its graduates were made. The government stressed the role of confucianism and Sung-gyun-gwan. Nevertheless, in the stream of tendency which sought practical officials, their future was not clear. Confucians and the students of Sung-gyun-gwan required political considerations. But the symbolic side of Sung-gyun-gwan as a core of confucianism was emphasized.
3. 성균관의 교육기능 복구와 근대적 학제로의 편입